The following file was written for informational purposes only! The author does not warrent the accuracy nor does he condone any form of illegal activity in respect to this file. Cellular Secrets by BOOTLEG (C) 1992 Let me start out by saying this file won't be in the best of ordered content as I'll be skipping around a little quoting data from various manuals as it pops into my mind. It will however, allow anyone that reads it thoroughly and obtains the manuals & equipment specified within, to do virtually anything regarding Cellular! ESN= Electronic Serial Number (every cellular has one in Rom) MIN= The cellulars phone # " " " " " " Reverse Channel= The channel the Cellular phone broadcasts on. Foward Channel = The channel the Cell Site broadcasts on. Remember these key terms as they are the secret to cellulars. Most cellulars have the ESN/MIN located in a Eprom/EEprom located somewhere on the circuit board.(older cellulars may not have a ESN) These are usually 27c256 or 27c512 eproms which can be burned or changed by standard eprom burners. They also contain the cellulars programming which can be changed. When you power up a cellular, it sends its ESN/MIN to the cell site on the reverse channel. The cell site then returns the MIN with an OK signal if their database verifies the ESN/MIN. Some newer cell site software will verify the ESN/MIN with the C.O. before allowing the call. If everything is ok, the cellular will then be able to place a call. (The REVERSE channels ESN/MIN & related data can be captured by equipment listed at the end of this file.) It seems like some scoundrels have captured other peoples ESN/MIN and burned new Eproms enabling another cellular phone to act as the original. Rumor has it that hackers have gone as far as actually changing the eproms software whereby the program jumps past the ESN/MIN address in the eprom to an address location that can be programmed into memory via the handset! Yet another rumor has it that some even go as far as re-programming the software to capture other cellulars ESN/MIN and automatically store the data in memory. This naturally allows someone to place fraudulent calls while frequently changing ESN/MINs to avoid all forms of detection. The cell sites usually use frequencies on the Non-wireline A band as forward channels. The reverse channels are usually 45 mhz below the forward channels. These REVERSE channels are the ones scanned by "UNSAVORY DOGS" that steal others ESN/MINs for fraudulent use. (hehe) Note that one hacker seems to think one can use a Z80 Uncompiler/Compiler on the eproms software of some cellulars. (The Shame of it all!) Other cellulars use different but common microprocessors of which compilers/de compilers are easily available. Ok-now that you have the theory behind cellular phreaking, I'll continue on to some backround & tech stuff you'll need. ****************************************************************** Cellular Overview A cell system divides the service area into small, low power areas called cells. A cell system has a continuous patern of these cells, each having a 1 to 40 mile radius (usually 5-10 miles). Within each cell is a base station which contain several transcievers and control equipment for the channels assigned to that cell. These are all connected to a MTSO which is in turn connected to a CO (central Office) switch. Each cell operates on an assigned channel and may have numerous paging and voice channels assigned to it. The cellular radio freqs have been divided by the FCC into 2 equal bands to allow 2 different systems to co-exist and compete in the same area. Originally there were 666 channels,but that was expanded to 832 in 1988, and with NAMPS to 2412 in 1991. Band A- Non Wireline Band B- Wireline Control channels=21 = 313-333 21= 334-354 Voice channels=001-312 355-666 (395 AMPS/1185 NAMPS) (395 AMPS/1185 NAMPS) Control channels are used to send and receive only digital data between the cellular phone & the cell base station. The 21 control channels in each band may be dedicated to two different applications: access and paging channels. The data on the Foward control channels provides such info as the system identification number and range of channels to scan to find the access and paging channels. Access channels are used to respond to a page or to originate a call. The system and the cell phone will use access channels where 2-way data transfer occurs to determine the initial voice channel. Paging channels if used are the holding place for an idle cell phone. When the call is received at the central controller for a cellular phone, the paging signalling will start on a paging channel. In many systems, both control channel functions will be served by the same access channel for a particular cell. Multiplepaging channels are only used in high density areas. NAM = Number assignment Module: This is a memory component (usually an Eprom/EEprom) that contains a cell phones ESN/MIN/SCM, lock code,etc. Some phones can be re-programmed via the handset so one can change their MIN several times. (usually the phones software locks it up after 3 to 20 MIN changes) This feature was used limitedly to deceive cell sites when roaming. Newer cell site software is quickly making this trick obsolete. ( the problem being is that one cannot change the ESN via NAM handset programming unless one re-writes the Eprom Software. HeHe) MTSO= Mobile Telephone Switching Office One must know, there is no distributed intelligence in the first generation of cellular systems! AT these cellular base stations there is little or no monitering equipment of any kind. There are a mix of 3 watt, 1.2 watt and 600 milliwatt cellular phones in use today. (keep this in mind as the power of a cellular phone is stored in ROM & transmitted along with the ESN/MIN and the coding must be correct.) 3 watt = mobiles, 1.6 watt=transportables, 600 milliwatt=portables IS-41 = The newest standard that will let cell switches from different vendors hand-off and deliver calls and transfer subscriber data profiles. (newest version is REVISION B) This document contains tons of usefull info & can be found at public libraries, etc. IS-41 rev b, is published by AT&T, although the original rev 0 published in 1987 or rev A published in 1990 may come in handy when dealing with older/smaller MTSOs that haven't upgraded yet. MTSOs typically use fiber optic links to cell sites or a 18 ghz microwave link. A cell site in turn then probably uses a 38 ghz microwave link to a Microcell Transmitter. TDMA and CDMA are both vying to become the industry standard. SS7 = As soon as a user turns on a cell phone the MIN/ESN for that phone will be carried as an SS7 network message to a database, known as the home location register(HLR),within the user's home carrier system. The HLR will provide information for validation as well as customer profile info for advanced features as voice mail. That info will then be be relayed to a second database, the visitor location register, maintained by the carrier that is hosting the roaming call. They hope to reduce fraud by checking the ESN with real time validation on a per call basis. The current system is unable to detect fraud until after a caller has made his first call. (This system simply uses a customers calling profile to detect an unusual calling pattern.) Those changing ESN/MINs often cannot be detected! Cell relay uses fixed length packets- 48 bytes for the payload and 5 bytes for the header. Two existing cell relay standards are IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) and ATM. They differ only in content of the header. Each cellular has 2 channels associated with it, the transmit (REVERSE) and the receive (FOWARD). REVERSE freqs= 824-848 mhz Forward freqs= 869-894 mhz Conventional dispatch=806-809.7 mhz and 851-854.75 mhz Trunked dispatch= 809.75-824 mhz and 854.75-869 mhz General reserve=848-851 mhz and 894-902 mhz and 928-947 mhz channel spacing = 30 mhz AMPS or 10 mhz NAMPS ************************************************************* Reverse Channel Info Voice channels are used primarily for conversation, with signaling used with quick data bursts or tones to handle cell to cell handoffs, output power control of the cellular radio-phone and special control features.Foward data from the cell site and REVERSE data from the cell phone is sent using frequency shift keying. The data is formatted into groups of words with a distinct binary preamble that allows the receiver to syncronize to the incomming data. With AMPS, various tones are used. With NAMPS the data and tones have been replaced by sub-audible digital equivalents that ride under the audio. (see EIA - 553 for AMPS or Motorolas NAMPS Air interface specification for NAMPS) Signaling Tone(ST) and Digital ST(DST) In AMPS, the signalling tone is a 10 khz signal used by the mobile on the REVERSE channel (REVC) to signal activities or to acknowledge commands from the cell site, including handoffs,alert orders, call terminations and switch-hook operation. Various burst lengths are used on different ST activities. On NAMPS channels ST is replaced by a digital equivalent called Digital ST (DST) which is the compliment of the assigned DSAT. The 10 khz signal is sent for 50 milliseconds. SAT (Supervisory Audio Tone) and DSAT (Digital SAT) The supervisory audio tone (SAT) is one of 3 frequencies: SAT 0 = 5970 hz SAT 1 = 6000 hz ( plus or minus 2khz on these SAT 2 = 6030 hz 3 freqs.) These are used in AMPS signaling. On NAMPS channels SAT is replaced by one of 7 subaudible digital equivalents or vectors called DSAT. SAT or DSAT is generated by the cell site, checked for frequency or accuracy by the cell phone, then transponded back to the cell site on the REVERSE voice channel (REVC). The cellular telephone uses (D)SAT to verify that it is tuned to the correct channel after a new voice channel assignment. When the CO signals the mobile regarding the new voice channel, it also tells the mobile of the SAT freq of the DSAT vector to expect on the new channel. The returned (D)SAT is used at the cell site to verify the presence of the telephones signal on the designated frequency. DSAT = +/- 700 hz deviation Data = Transmitted at 10 kbits/sec. Used for sending System Orders & mobile identification. In cellular the data is transmitted as Frequency Key Shifting, where the carrier is shifted high 8 khz in AMPS(700 hz in NAMPS) to represent a logic high (or 1), and the carrier is shifted low 8 khz in AMPS(700 hz in NAMPS) to represent a logic low (or 0). Control channels carry data only. Voice channels carry data and other signals listed here. Audio = includes all microphone audio & DTMF while in a call (maximum =/- 12 khz deviation AMPS,=/- 5 khz dev NAMPS). DTMF uses 2 tones (one high one low)from a selection of seven tones (4 low,3 high tones) to indicate digits being dialed. In AMPS signalling, audio & ST are accompanied by SAT. ******************************************************************* Placing a call from a Cellular Phone When first turned on, the cellular scans through the FOCCs and measure the strengt of each signal. It will then tune to the strongest & attempt to decode the overhead control message. From the overhead the phone can determine if it is in its home system and range of channels to scan for paging and access. If paging channels are used, the phone next scans each paging channelin the specified range & tunes to the strongest one. Its on that channel the phone will continuously receive overhead message info plus paging messages. At this point the phone idles, continuously updating the overhead message info in its memory and monitoring the paging messages for its telephone number. When the cellular phone user originates the call, the phone rescans the access channels to assure that its tuned to the strongest one. It then transmits at 10kbits per sec on the control channel to notify the switch of its MIN (mobile identification number (phone number)), its ESN and the number it wants to reach. The switch verifies the incomming data and assigns a voice channel and a SAT (or DSAT forNAMPS) to the telephone. The phone tunes to the assigned voice channel and verifies the presence of the proper foward SAT frequency or (DSAT message. If SAT (DSAT) is correct the phone transponds SAT(DSAT) back to the cell site and unmutes the forward audio. The cell site detects reverse SAT(DSAT) from the cellular & unmutes reverse audio. At this point the user can hear the other end ring. SAT(DSAT is sent and received more or less continuously by both the base station & the phone but SAT(DSAT) is not sent during data transmissions and the phone does not transpond SAT continously during VOX operation. DSAT is suspended during the transmission of DST. SAT 7 signalling tones are only used on AMPS voice channels & the signalling tone is only transmitted by the cellular phone. Note that the number called, the ESN, MIN etc. are transmitted 4 or 5 times & it only takes 260 milliseconds for all this data exchange. Call termination = 10 khz tone burst for 1.8 seconds. **************************************************************** Formulae Freq calc for channels 1-799 = REVERSE = 825mhz + (Ch.# X .03 mhz) Forward = 870mhz + (Ch.# X .03 mhz) Freq calc for channels 991-1023 REV = 825mhz - (.03 mhz X(1023-Ch#)) For = 870mhz - " " " " Duplex spacing = 45 mhz *********************************************************************** Station Class Mark (SCM) SCM 666 or 832 Ch. VOX Max Power in Watts 00 666 n 3 01 666 n 1.2 02 666 n .6 03 04 666 y 3 05 666 y 1.2 06 666 y .6 07 08 832 n 3 09 832 n 1.2 10 832 n .6 11 12 832 y 3 13 832 y 1.2 14 832 y .6 15 If the SCM is not set properly during programming the EProm, it might have adverse effects on the operation of the phone. It may also flag security software to a "Tumbled Phone". Smart cell phreaks will only use ESN/MINs that have the same SCM as their own phone they plan on TUMBLING. ********************************************************************* Cellular phone channel construction =============================================================================== Here is a method of determining which frequencies are used in a cellular system, and which ones are in what cells. If the system uses OMNICELLS, as most do, you can readily find all the channels in a cell if you know just one of them, using tables constructed with the instructions below. Cellular frequencies are assigned by channel number, and for all channel numbers, in both wireline and non-wireline systems, the formula is: Transmit Frequency = (channel number x .030 MHz) + 870 MHz Receive Frequency = (channel number x .030 Mhz) + 825 Mhz "Band A" (one of the two blocks) uses channels 1 - 333. To construct a table showing frequency by cells, use channel 333 as the top left corner of a table. The next entry to the right of channel 333 is 332, the next is 331, etc., down to channel 313. Enter channel 312 underneath 333, 311 under 332, etc. Each channel across the top row is the first channel in each CELL of the system; each channel DOWN from the column from the the first channel is the next frequency assigned to that cell. You may have noted that each channel down is 21 channels lower in number. Usually the data channel used is the highest numbered channel in a cell. "Band B" uses channels from 334 to 666. Construct your table in a similar way, with channel 334 in the upper left corner, 335 the next entry to the right. The data channel should be the lowest numbered channel in each cell this time. Cellular Phone Band A (Channel 1 is Data) Cell # 1 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (333) Tx 879.990 Rx 834.990 Channel 2 (312) Tx 879.360 Rx 834.360 Channel 3 (291) Tx 878.730 Rx 833.730 Channel 4 (270) Tx 878.100 Rx 833.100 Channel 5 (249) Tx 877.470 Rx 832.470 Channel 6 (228) Tx 876.840 Rx 831.840 Channel 7 (207) Tx 876.210 Rx 831.210 Channel 8 (186) Tx 875.580 Rx 830.580 Channel 9 (165) Tx 874.950 Rx 829.950 Channel 10 (144) Tx 874.320 Rx 829.320 Channel 11 (123) Tx 873.690 Rx 828.690 Channel 12 (102) Tx 873.060 Rx 828.060 Channel 13 (81) Tx 872.430 Rx 827.430 Channel 14 (60) Tx 871.800 Rx 826.800 Channel 15 (39) Tx 871.170 Rx 826.170 Channel 16 (18) Tx 870.540 Rx 825.540 Cell # 2 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (332) Tx 879.960 Rx 834.960 Channel 2 (311) Tx 879.330 Rx 834.330 Channel 3 (290) Tx 878.700 Rx 833.700 Channel 4 (269) Tx 878.070 Rx 833.070 Channel 5 (248) Tx 877.440 Rx 832.440 Channel 6 (227) Tx 876.810 Rx 831.810 Channel 7 (206) Tx 876.180 Rx 831.180 Channel 8 (185) Tx 875.550 Rx 830.550 Channel 9 (164) Tx 874.920 Rx 829.920 Channel 10 (143) Tx 874.290 Rx 829.290 Channel 11 (122) Tx 873.660 Rx 828.660 Channel 12 (101) Tx 873.030 Rx 828.030 Channel 13 (80) Tx 872.400 Rx 827.400 Channel 14 (59) Tx 871.770 Rx 826.770 Channel 15 (38) Tx 871.140 Rx 826.140 Channel 16 (17) Tx 870.510 Rx 825.510 Cell # 3 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (331) Tx 879.930 Rx 834.930 Channel 2 (310) Tx 879.300 Rx 834.300 Channel 3 (289) Tx 878.670 Rx 833.670 Channel 4 (268) Tx 878.040 Rx 833.040 Channel 5 (247) Tx 877.410 Rx 832.410 Channel 6 (226) Tx 876.780 Rx 831.780 Channel 7 (205) Tx 876.150 Rx 831.150 Channel 8 (184) Tx 875.520 Rx 830.520 Channel 9 (163) Tx 874.890 Rx 829.890 Channel 10 (142) Tx 874.260 Rx 829.260 Channel 11 (121) Tx 873.630 Rx 828.630 Channel 12 (100) Tx 873.000 Rx 828.000 Channel 13 (79) Tx 872.370 Rx 827.370 Channel 14 (58) Tx 871.740 Rx 826.740 Channel 15 (37) Tx 871.110 Rx 826.110 Channel 16 (16) Tx 870.480 Rx 825.480 Cell # 4 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (330) Tx 879.900 Rx 834.900 Channel 2 (309) Tx 879.270 Rx 834.270 Channel 3 (288) Tx 878.640 Rx 833.640 Channel 4 (267) Tx 878.010 Rx 833.010 Channel 5 (246) Tx 877.380 Rx 832.380 Channel 6 (225) Tx 876.750 Rx 831.750 Channel 7 (204) Tx 876.120 Rx 831.120 Channel 8 (183) Tx 875.490 Rx 830.490 Channel 9 (162) Tx 874.860 Rx 829.860 Channel 10 (141) Tx 874.230 Rx 829.230 Channel 11 (120) Tx 873.600 Rx 828.600 Channel 12 (99) Tx 872.970 Rx 827.970 Channel 13 (78) Tx 872.340 Rx 827.340 Channel 14 (57) Tx 871.710 Rx 826.710 Channel 15 (36) Tx 871.080 Rx 826.080 Channel 16 (15) Tx 870.450 Rx 825.450 Cell # 5 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (329) Tx 879.870 Rx 834.870 Channel 2 (308) Tx 879.240 Rx 834.240 Channel 3 (287) Tx 878.610 Rx 833.610 Channel 4 (266) Tx 877.980 Rx 832.980 Channel 5 (245) Tx 877.350 Rx 832.350 Channel 6 (224) Tx 876.720 Rx 831.720 Channel 7 (203) Tx 876.090 Rx 831.090 Channel 8 (182) Tx 875.460 Rx 830.460 Channel 9 (161) Tx 874.830 Rx 829.830 Channel 10 (140) Tx 874.200 Rx 829.200 Channel 11 (119) Tx 873.570 Rx 828.570 Channel 12 (98) Tx 872.940 Rx 827.940 Channel 13 (77) Tx 872.310 Rx 827.310 Channel 14 (56) Tx 871.680 Rx 826.680 Channel 15 (35) Tx 871.050 Rx 826.050 Channel 16 (14) Tx 870.420 Rx 825.420 Cell # 6 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (328) Tx 879.840 Rx 834.840 Channel 2 (307) Tx 879.210 Rx 834.210 Channel 3 (286) Tx 878.580 Rx 833.580 Channel 4 (265) Tx 877.950 Rx 832.950 Channel 5 (244) Tx 877.320 Rx 832.320 Channel 6 (223) Tx 876.690 Rx 831.690 Channel 7 (202) Tx 876.060 Rx 831.060 Channel 8 (181) Tx 875.430 Rx 830.430 Channel 9 (160) Tx 874.800 Rx 829.800 Channel 10 (139) Tx 874.170 Rx 829.170 Channel 11 (118) Tx 873.540 Rx 828.540 Channel 12 (97) Tx 872.910 Rx 827.910 Channel 13 (76) Tx 872.280 Rx 827.280 Channel 14 (55) Tx 871.650 Rx 826.650 Channel 15 (34) Tx 871.020 Rx 826.020 Channel 16 (13) Tx 870.390 Rx 825.390 Cell # 7 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (327) Tx 879.810 Rx 834.810 Channel 2 (306) Tx 879.180 Rx 834.180 Channel 3 (285) Tx 878.550 Rx 833.550 Channel 4 (264) Tx 877.920 Rx 832.920 Channel 5 (243) Tx 877.290 Rx 832.290 Channel 6 (222) Tx 876.660 Rx 831.660 Channel 7 (201) Tx 876.030 Rx 831.030 Channel 8 (180) Tx 875.400 Rx 830.400 Channel 9 (159) Tx 874.770 Rx 829.770 Channel 10 (138) Tx 874.140 Rx 829.140 Channel 11 (117) Tx 873.510 Rx 828.510 Channel 12 (96) Tx 872.880 Rx 827.880 Channel 13 (75) Tx 872.250 Rx 827.250 Channel 14 (54) Tx 871.620 Rx 826.620 Channel 15 (33) Tx 870.990 Rx 825.990 Channel 16 (12) Tx 870.360 Rx 825.360 Cell # 8 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (326) Tx 879.780 Rx 834.780 Channel 2 (305) Tx 879.150 Rx 834.150 Channel 3 (284) Tx 878.520 Rx 833.520 Channel 4 (263) Tx 877.890 Rx 832.890 Channel 5 (242) Tx 877.260 Rx 832.260 Channel 6 (221) Tx 876.630 Rx 831.630 Channel 7 (200) Tx 876.000 Rx 831.000 Channel 8 (179) Tx 875.370 Rx 830.370 Channel 9 (158) Tx 874.740 Rx 829.740 Channel 10 (137) Tx 874.110 Rx 829.110 Channel 11 (116) Tx 873.480 Rx 828.480 Channel 12 (95) Tx 872.850 Rx 827.850 Channel 13 (74) Tx 872.220 Rx 827.220 Channel 14 (53) Tx 871.590 Rx 826.590 Channel 15 (32) Tx 870.960 Rx 825.960 Channel 16 (11) Tx 870.330 Rx 825.330 Cell # 9 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (325) Tx 879.750 Rx 834.750 Channel 2 (304) Tx 879.120 Rx 834.120 Channel 3 (283) Tx 878.490 Rx 833.490 Channel 4 (262) Tx 877.860 Rx 832.860 Channel 5 (241) Tx 877.230 Rx 832.230 Channel 6 (220) Tx 876.600 Rx 831.600 Channel 7 (199) Tx 875.970 Rx 830.970 Channel 8 (178) Tx 875.340 Rx 830.340 Channel 9 (157) Tx 874.710 Rx 829.710 Channel 10 (136) Tx 874.080 Rx 829.080 Channel 11 (115) Tx 873.450 Rx 828.450 Channel 12 (94) Tx 872.820 Rx 827.820 Channel 13 (73) Tx 872.190 Rx 827.190 Channel 14 (52) Tx 871.560 Rx 826.560 Channel 15 (31) Tx 870.930 Rx 825.930 Channel 16 (10) Tx 870.300 Rx 825.300 Cell # 10 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (324) Tx 879.720 Rx 834.720 Channel 2 (303) Tx 879.090 Rx 834.090 Channel 3 (282) Tx 878.460 Rx 833.460 Channel 4 (261) Tx 877.830 Rx 832.830 Channel 5 (240) Tx 877.200 Rx 832.200 Channel 6 (219) Tx 876.570 Rx 831.570 Channel 7 (198) Tx 875.940 Rx 830.940 Channel 8 (177) Tx 875.310 Rx 830.310 Channel 9 (156) Tx 874.680 Rx 829.680 Channel 10 (135) Tx 874.050 Rx 829.050 Channel 11 (114) Tx 873.420 Rx 828.420 Channel 12 (93) Tx 872.790 Rx 827.790 Channel 13 (72) Tx 872.160 Rx 827.160 Channel 14 (51) Tx 871.530 Rx 826.530 Channel 15 (30) Tx 870.900 Rx 825.900 Channel 16 (9) Tx 870.270 Rx 825.270 Cell # 11 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (323) Tx 879.690 Rx 834.690 Channel 2 (302) Tx 879.060 Rx 834.060 Channel 3 (281) Tx 878.430 Rx 833.430 Channel 4 (260) Tx 877.800 Rx 832.800 Channel 5 (239) Tx 877.170 Rx 832.170 Channel 6 (218) Tx 876.540 Rx 831.540 Channel 7 (197) Tx 875.910 Rx 830.910 Channel 8 (176) Tx 875.280 Rx 830.280 Channel 9 (155) Tx 874.650 Rx 829.650 Channel 10 (134) Tx 874.020 Rx 829.020 Channel 11 (113) Tx 873.390 Rx 828.390 Channel 12 (92) Tx 872.760 Rx 827.760 Channel 13 (71) Tx 872.130 Rx 827.130 Channel 14 (50) Tx 871.500 Rx 826.500 Channel 15 (29) Tx 870.870 Rx 825.870 Channel 16 (8) Tx 870.240 Rx 825.240 Cell # 12 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (322) Tx 879.660 Rx 834.660 Channel 2 (301) Tx 879.030 Rx 834.030 Channel 3 (280) Tx 878.400 Rx 833.400 Channel 4 (259) Tx 877.770 Rx 832.770 Channel 5 (238) Tx 877.140 Rx 832.140 Channel 6 (217) Tx 876.510 Rx 831.510 Channel 7 (196) Tx 875.880 Rx 830.880 Channel 8 (175) Tx 875.250 Rx 830.250 Channel 9 (154) Tx 874.620 Rx 829.620 Channel 10 (133) Tx 873.990 Rx 828.990 Channel 11 (112) Tx 873.360 Rx 828.360 Channel 12 (91) Tx 872.730 Rx 827.730 Channel 13 (70) Tx 872.100 Rx 827.100 Channel 14 (49) Tx 871.470 Rx 826.470 Channel 15 (28) Tx 870.840 Rx 825.840 Channel 16 (7) Tx 870.210 Rx 825.210 Cell # 13 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (321) Tx 879.630 Rx 834.630 Channel 2 (300) Tx 879.000 Rx 834.000 Channel 3 (279) Tx 878.370 Rx 833.370 Channel 4 (258) Tx 877.740 Rx 832.740 Channel 5 (237) Tx 877.110 Rx 832.110 Channel 6 (216) Tx 876.480 Rx 831.480 Channel 7 (195) Tx 875.850 Rx 830.850 Channel 8 (174) Tx 875.220 Rx 830.220 Channel 9 (153) Tx 874.590 Rx 829.590 Channel 10 (132) Tx 873.960 Rx 828.960 Channel 11 (111) Tx 873.330 Rx 828.330 Channel 12 (90) Tx 872.700 Rx 827.700 Channel 13 (69) Tx 872.070 Rx 827.070 Channel 14 (48) Tx 871.440 Rx 826.440 Channel 15 (27) Tx 870.810 Rx 825.810 Channel 16 (6) Tx 870.180 Rx 825.180 Cell # 14 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (320) Tx 879.600 Rx 834.600 Channel 2 (299) Tx 878.970 Rx 833.970 Channel 3 (278) Tx 878.340 Rx 833.340 Channel 4 (257) Tx 877.710 Rx 832.710 Channel 5 (236) Tx 877.080 Rx 832.080 Channel 6 (215) Tx 876.450 Rx 831.450 Channel 7 (194) Tx 875.820 Rx 830.820 Channel 8 (173) Tx 875.190 Rx 830.190 Channel 9 (152) Tx 874.560 Rx 829.560 Channel 10 (131) Tx 873.930 Rx 828.930 Channel 11 (110) Tx 873.300 Rx 828.300 Channel 12 (89) Tx 872.670 Rx 827.670 Channel 13 (68) Tx 872.040 Rx 827.040 Channel 14 (47) Tx 871.410 Rx 826.410 Channel 15 (26) Tx 870.780 Rx 825.780 Channel 16 (5) Tx 870.150 Rx 825.150 Cell # 15 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (319) Tx 879.570 Rx 834.570 Channel 2 (298) Tx 878.940 Rx 833.940 Channel 3 (277) Tx 878.310 Rx 833.310 Channel 4 (256) Tx 877.680 Rx 832.680 Channel 5 (235) Tx 877.050 Rx 832.050 Channel 6 (214) Tx 876.420 Rx 831.420 Channel 7 (193) Tx 875.790 Rx 830.790 Channel 8 (172) Tx 875.160 Rx 830.160 Channel 9 (151) Tx 874.530 Rx 829.530 Channel 10 (130) Tx 873.900 Rx 828.900 Channel 11 (109) Tx 873.270 Rx 828.270 Channel 12 (88) Tx 872.640 Rx 827.640 Channel 13 (67) Tx 872.010 Rx 827.010 Channel 14 (46) Tx 871.380 Rx 826.380 Channel 15 (25) Tx 870.750 Rx 825.750 Channel 16 (4) Tx 870.120 Rx 825.120 Cell # 16 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (318) Tx 879.540 Rx 834.540 Channel 2 (297) Tx 878.910 Rx 833.910 Channel 3 (276) Tx 878.280 Rx 833.280 Channel 4 (255) Tx 877.650 Rx 832.650 Channel 5 (234) Tx 877.020 Rx 832.020 Channel 6 (213) Tx 876.390 Rx 831.390 Channel 7 (192) Tx 875.760 Rx 830.760 Channel 8 (171) Tx 875.130 Rx 830.130 Channel 9 (150) Tx 874.500 Rx 829.500 Channel 10 (129) Tx 873.870 Rx 828.870 Channel 11 (108) Tx 873.240 Rx 828.240 Channel 12 (87) Tx 872.610 Rx 827.610 Channel 13 (66) Tx 871.980 Rx 826.980 Channel 14 (45) Tx 871.350 Rx 826.350 Channel 15 (24) Tx 870.720 Rx 825.720 Channel 16 (3) Tx 870.090 Rx 825.090 Cell # 17 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (317) Tx 879.510 Rx 834.510 Channel 2 (296) Tx 878.880 Rx 833.880 Channel 3 (275) Tx 878.250 Rx 833.250 Channel 4 (254) Tx 877.620 Rx 832.620 Channel 5 (233) Tx 876.990 Rx 831.990 Channel 6 (212) Tx 876.360 Rx 831.360 Channel 7 (191) Tx 875.730 Rx 830.730 Channel 8 (170) Tx 875.100 Rx 830.100 Channel 9 (149) Tx 874.470 Rx 829.470 Channel 10 (128) Tx 873.840 Rx 828.840 Channel 11 (107) Tx 873.210 Rx 828.210 Channel 12 (86) Tx 872.580 Rx 827.580 Channel 13 (65) Tx 871.950 Rx 826.950 Channel 14 (44) Tx 871.320 Rx 826.320 Channel 15 (23) Tx 870.690 Rx 825.690 Channel 16 (2) Tx 870.060 Rx 825.060 Cell # 18 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (316) Tx 879.480 Rx 834.480 Channel 2 (295) Tx 878.850 Rx 833.850 Channel 3 (274) Tx 878.220 Rx 833.220 Channel 4 (253) Tx 877.590 Rx 832.590 Channel 5 (232) Tx 876.960 Rx 831.960 Channel 6 (211) Tx 876.330 Rx 831.330 Channel 7 (190) Tx 875.700 Rx 830.700 Channel 8 (169) Tx 875.070 Rx 830.070 Channel 9 (148) Tx 874.440 Rx 829.440 Channel 10 (127) Tx 873.810 Rx 828.810 Channel 11 (106) Tx 873.180 Rx 828.180 Channel 12 (85) Tx 872.550 Rx 827.550 Channel 13 (64) Tx 871.920 Rx 826.920 Channel 14 (43) Tx 871.290 Rx 826.290 Channel 15 (22) Tx 870.660 Rx 825.660 Channel 16 (1) Tx 870.030 Rx 825.030 Cell # 19 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (315) Tx 879.450 Rx 834.450 Channel 2 (294) Tx 878.820 Rx 833.820 Channel 3 (273) Tx 878.190 Rx 833.190 Channel 4 (252) Tx 877.560 Rx 832.560 Channel 5 (231) Tx 876.930 Rx 831.930 Channel 6 (210) Tx 876.300 Rx 831.300 Channel 7 (189) Tx 875.670 Rx 830.670 Channel 8 (168) Tx 875.040 Rx 830.040 Channel 9 (147) Tx 874.410 Rx 829.410 Channel 10 (126) Tx 873.780 Rx 828.780 Channel 11 (105) Tx 873.150 Rx 828.150 Channel 12 (84) Tx 872.520 Rx 827.520 Channel 13 (63) Tx 871.890 Rx 826.890 Channel 14 (42) Tx 871.260 Rx 826.260 Channel 15 (21) Tx 870.630 Rx 825.630 Cell # 20 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (314) Tx 879.420 Rx 834.420 Channel 2 (293) Tx 878.790 Rx 833.790 Channel 3 (272) Tx 878.160 Rx 833.160 Channel 4 (251) Tx 877.530 Rx 832.530 Channel 5 (230) Tx 876.900 Rx 831.900 Channel 6 (209) Tx 876.270 Rx 831.270 Channel 7 (188) Tx 875.640 Rx 830.640 Channel 8 (167) Tx 875.010 Rx 830.010 Channel 9 (146) Tx 874.380 Rx 829.380 Channel 10 (125) Tx 873.750 Rx 828.750 Channel 11 (104) Tx 873.120 Rx 828.120 Channel 12 (83) Tx 872.490 Rx 827.490 Channel 13 (62) Tx 871.860 Rx 826.860 Channel 14 (41) Tx 871.230 Rx 826.230 Channel 15 (20) Tx 870.600 Rx 825.600 Cell # 21 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (313) Tx 879.390 Rx 834.390 Channel 2 (292) Tx 878.760 Rx 833.760 Channel 3 (271) Tx 878.130 Rx 833.130 Channel 4 (250) Tx 877.500 Rx 832.500 Channel 5 (229) Tx 876.870 Rx 831.870 Channel 6 (208) Tx 876.240 Rx 831.240 Channel 7 (187) Tx 875.610 Rx 830.610 Channel 8 (166) Tx 874.980 Rx 829.980 Channel 9 (145) Tx 874.350 Rx 829.350 Channel 10 (124) Tx 873.720 Rx 828.720 Channel 11 (103) Tx 873.090 Rx 828.090 Channel 12 (82) Tx 872.460 Rx 827.460 Channel 13 (61) Tx 871.830 Rx 826.830 Channel 14 (40) Tx 871.200 Rx 826.200 Channel 15 (19) Tx 870.570 Rx 825.570 ************************************************** Cellular Phone Band B (Channel 1 is Data) Cell # 1 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (334) Tx 880.020 Rx 835.020 Channel 2 (355) Tx 880.650 Rx 835.650 Channel 3 (376) Tx 881.280 Rx 836.280 Channel 4 (397) Tx 881.910 Rx 836.910 Channel 5 (418) Tx 882.540 Rx 837.540 Channel 6 (439) Tx 883.170 Rx 838.170 Channel 7 (460) Tx 883.800 Rx 838.800 Channel 8 (481) Tx 884.430 Rx 839.430 Channel 9 (502) Tx 885.060 Rx 840.060 Channel 10 (523) Tx 885.690 Rx 840.690 Channel 11 (544) Tx 886.320 Rx 841.320 Channel 12 (565) Tx 886.950 Rx 841.950 Channel 13 (586) Tx 887.580 Rx 842.580 Channel 14 (607) Tx 888.210 Rx 843.210 Channel 15 (628) Tx 888.840 Rx 843.840 Channel 16 (649) Tx 889.470 Rx 844.470 Cell # 2 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (335) Tx 880.050 Rx 835.050 Channel 2 (356) Tx 880.680 Rx 835.680 Channel 3 (377) Tx 881.310 Rx 836.310 Channel 4 (398) Tx 881.940 Rx 836.940 Channel 5 (419) Tx 882.570 Rx 837.570 Channel 6 (440) Tx 883.200 Rx 838.200 Channel 7 (461) Tx 883.830 Rx 838.830 Channel 8 (482) Tx 884.460 Rx 839.460 Channel 9 (503) Tx 885.090 Rx 840.090 Channel 10 (524) Tx 885.720 Rx 840.720 Channel 11 (545) Tx 886.350 Rx 841.350 Channel 12 (566) Tx 886.980 Rx 841.980 Channel 13 (587) Tx 887.610 Rx 842.610 Channel 14 (608) Tx 888.240 Rx 843.240 Channel 15 (629) Tx 888.870 Rx 843.870 Channel 16 (650) Tx 889.500 Rx 844.500 Cell # 3 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (336) Tx 880.080 Rx 835.080 Channel 2 (357) Tx 880.710 Rx 835.710 Channel 3 (378) Tx 881.340 Rx 836.340 Channel 4 (399) Tx 881.970 Rx 836.970 Channel 5 (420) Tx 882.600 Rx 837.600 Channel 6 (441) Tx 883.230 Rx 838.230 Channel 7 (462) Tx 883.860 Rx 838.860 Channel 8 (483) Tx 884.490 Rx 839.490 Channel 9 (504) Tx 885.120 Rx 840.120 Channel 10 (525) Tx 885.750 Rx 840.750 Channel 11 (546) Tx 886.380 Rx 841.380 Channel 12 (567) Tx 887.010 Rx 842.010 Channel 13 (588) Tx 887.640 Rx 842.640 Channel 14 (609) Tx 888.270 Rx 843.270 Channel 15 (630) Tx 888.900 Rx 843.900 Channel 16 (651) Tx 889.530 Rx 844.530 Cell # 4 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (337) Tx 880.110 Rx 835.110 Channel 2 (358) Tx 880.740 Rx 835.740 Channel 3 (379) Tx 881.370 Rx 836.370 Channel 4 (400) Tx 882.000 Rx 837.000 Channel 5 (421) Tx 882.630 Rx 837.630 Channel 6 (442) Tx 883.260 Rx 838.260 Channel 7 (463) Tx 883.890 Rx 838.890 Channel 8 (484) Tx 884.520 Rx 839.520 Channel 9 (505) Tx 885.150 Rx 840.150 Channel 10 (526) Tx 885.780 Rx 840.780 Channel 11 (547) Tx 886.410 Rx 841.410 Channel 12 (568) Tx 887.040 Rx 842.040 Channel 13 (589) Tx 887.670 Rx 842.670 Channel 14 (610) Tx 888.300 Rx 843.300 Channel 15 (631) Tx 888.930 Rx 843.930 Channel 16 (652) Tx 889.560 Rx 844.560 Cell # 5 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (338) Tx 880.140 Rx 835.140 Channel 2 (359) Tx 880.770 Rx 835.770 Channel 3 (380) Tx 881.400 Rx 836.400 Channel 4 (401) Tx 882.030 Rx 837.030 Channel 5 (422) Tx 882.660 Rx 837.660 Channel 6 (443) Tx 883.290 Rx 838.290 Channel 7 (464) Tx 883.920 Rx 838.920 Channel 8 (485) Tx 884.550 Rx 839.550 Channel 9 (506) Tx 885.180 Rx 840.180 Channel 10 (527) Tx 885.810 Rx 840.810 Channel 11 (548) Tx 886.440 Rx 841.440 Channel 12 (569) Tx 887.070 Rx 842.070 Channel 13 (590) Tx 887.700 Rx 842.700 Channel 14 (611) Tx 888.330 Rx 843.330 Channel 15 (632) Tx 888.960 Rx 843.960 Channel 16 (653) Tx 889.590 Rx 844.590 Cell # 6 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (339) Tx 880.170 Rx 835.170 Channel 2 (360) Tx 880.800 Rx 835.800 Channel 3 (381) Tx 881.430 Rx 836.430 Channel 4 (402) Tx 882.060 Rx 837.060 Channel 5 (423) Tx 882.690 Rx 837.690 Channel 6 (444) Tx 883.320 Rx 838.320 Channel 7 (465) Tx 883.950 Rx 838.950 Channel 8 (486) Tx 884.580 Rx 839.580 Channel 9 (507) Tx 885.210 Rx 840.210 Channel 10 (528) Tx 885.840 Rx 840.840 Channel 11 (549) Tx 886.470 Rx 841.470 Channel 12 (570) Tx 887.100 Rx 842.100 Channel 13 (591) Tx 887.730 Rx 842.730 Channel 14 (612) Tx 888.360 Rx 843.360 Channel 15 (633) Tx 888.990 Rx 843.990 Channel 16 (654) Tx 889.620 Rx 844.620 Cell # 7 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (340) Tx 880.200 Rx 835.200 Channel 2 (361) Tx 880.830 Rx 835.830 Channel 3 (382) Tx 881.460 Rx 836.460 Channel 4 (403) Tx 882.090 Rx 837.090 Channel 5 (424) Tx 882.720 Rx 837.720 Channel 6 (445) Tx 883.350 Rx 838.350 Channel 7 (466) Tx 883.980 Rx 838.980 Channel 8 (487) Tx 884.610 Rx 839.610 Channel 9 (508) Tx 885.240 Rx 840.240 Channel 10 (529) Tx 885.870 Rx 840.870 Channel 11 (550) Tx 886.500 Rx 841.500 Channel 12 (571) Tx 887.130 Rx 842.130 Channel 13 (592) Tx 887.760 Rx 842.760 Channel 14 (613) Tx 888.390 Rx 843.390 Channel 15 (634) Tx 889.020 Rx 844.020 Channel 16 (655) Tx 889.650 Rx 844.650 Cell # 8 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (341) Tx 880.230 Rx 835.230 Channel 2 (362) Tx 880.860 Rx 835.860 Channel 3 (383) Tx 881.490 Rx 836.490 Channel 4 (404) Tx 882.120 Rx 837.120 Channel 5 (425) Tx 882.750 Rx 837.750 Channel 6 (446) Tx 883.380 Rx 838.380 Channel 7 (467) Tx 884.010 Rx 839.010 Channel 8 (488) Tx 884.640 Rx 839.640 Channel 9 (509) Tx 885.270 Rx 840.270 Channel 10 (530) Tx 885.900 Rx 840.900 Channel 11 (551) Tx 886.530 Rx 841.530 Channel 12 (572) Tx 887.160 Rx 842.160 Channel 13 (593) Tx 887.790 Rx 842.790 Channel 14 (614) Tx 888.420 Rx 843.420 Channel 15 (635) Tx 889.050 Rx 844.050 Channel 16 (656) Tx 889.680 Rx 844.680 Cell # 9 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (342) Tx 880.260 Rx 835.260 Channel 2 (363) Tx 880.890 Rx 835.890 Channel 3 (384) Tx 881.520 Rx 836.520 Channel 4 (405) Tx 882.150 Rx 837.150 Channel 5 (426) Tx 882.780 Rx 837.780 Channel 6 (447) Tx 883.410 Rx 838.410 Channel 7 (468) Tx 884.040 Rx 839.040 Channel 8 (489) Tx 884.670 Rx 839.670 Channel 9 (510) Tx 885.300 Rx 840.300 Channel 10 (531) Tx 885.930 Rx 840.930 Channel 11 (552) Tx 886.560 Rx 841.560 Channel 12 (573) Tx 887.190 Rx 842.190 Channel 13 (594) Tx 887.820 Rx 842.820 Channel 14 (615) Tx 888.450 Rx 843.450 Channel 15 (636) Tx 889.080 Rx 844.080 Channel 16 (657) Tx 889.710 Rx 844.710 Cell # 10 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (343) Tx 880.290 Rx 835.290 Channel 2 (364) Tx 880.920 Rx 835.920 Channel 3 (385) Tx 881.550 Rx 836.550 Channel 4 (406) Tx 882.180 Rx 837.180 Channel 5 (427) Tx 882.810 Rx 837.810 Channel 6 (448) Tx 883.440 Rx 838.440 Channel 7 (469) Tx 884.070 Rx 839.070 Channel 8 (490) Tx 884.700 Rx 839.700 Channel 9 (511) Tx 885.330 Rx 840.330 Channel 10 (532) Tx 885.960 Rx 840.960 Channel 11 (553) Tx 886.590 Rx 841.590 Channel 12 (574) Tx 887.220 Rx 842.220 Channel 13 (595) Tx 887.850 Rx 842.850 Channel 14 (616) Tx 888.480 Rx 843.480 Channel 15 (637) Tx 889.110 Rx 844.110 Channel 16 (658) Tx 889.740 Rx 844.740 Cell # 11 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (344) Tx 880.320 Rx 835.320 Channel 2 (365) Tx 880.950 Rx 835.950 Channel 3 (386) Tx 881.580 Rx 836.580 Channel 4 (407) Tx 882.210 Rx 837.210 Channel 5 (428) Tx 882.840 Rx 837.840 Channel 6 (449) Tx 883.470 Rx 838.470 Channel 7 (470) Tx 884.100 Rx 839.100 Channel 8 (491) Tx 884.730 Rx 839.730 Channel 9 (512) Tx 885.360 Rx 840.360 Channel 10 (533) Tx 885.990 Rx 840.990 Channel 11 (554) Tx 886.620 Rx 841.620 Channel 12 (575) Tx 887.250 Rx 842.250 Channel 13 (596) Tx 887.880 Rx 842.880 Channel 14 (617) Tx 888.510 Rx 843.510 Channel 15 (638) Tx 889.140 Rx 844.140 Channel 16 (659) Tx 889.770 Rx 844.770 Cell # 12 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (345) Tx 880.350 Rx 835.350 Channel 2 (366) Tx 880.980 Rx 835.980 Channel 3 (387) Tx 881.610 Rx 836.610 Channel 4 (408) Tx 882.240 Rx 837.240 Channel 5 (429) Tx 882.870 Rx 837.870 Channel 6 (450) Tx 883.500 Rx 838.500 Channel 7 (471) Tx 884.130 Rx 839.130 Channel 8 (492) Tx 884.760 Rx 839.760 Channel 9 (513) Tx 885.390 Rx 840.390 Channel 10 (534) Tx 886.020 Rx 841.020 Channel 11 (555) Tx 886.650 Rx 841.650 Channel 12 (576) Tx 887.280 Rx 842.280 Channel 13 (597) Tx 887.910 Rx 842.910 Channel 14 (618) Tx 888.540 Rx 843.540 Channel 15 (639) Tx 889.170 Rx 844.170 Channel 16 (660) Tx 889.800 Rx 844.800 Cell # 13 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (346) Tx 880.380 Rx 835.380 Channel 2 (367) Tx 881.010 Rx 836.010 Channel 3 (388) Tx 881.640 Rx 836.640 Channel 4 (409) Tx 882.270 Rx 837.270 Channel 5 (430) Tx 882.900 Rx 837.900 Channel 6 (451) Tx 883.530 Rx 838.530 Channel 7 (472) Tx 884.160 Rx 839.160 Channel 8 (493) Tx 884.790 Rx 839.790 Channel 9 (514) Tx 885.420 Rx 840.420 Channel 10 (535) Tx 886.050 Rx 841.050 Channel 11 (556) Tx 886.680 Rx 841.680 Channel 12 (577) Tx 887.310 Rx 842.310 Channel 13 (598) Tx 887.940 Rx 842.940 Channel 14 (619) Tx 888.570 Rx 843.570 Channel 15 (640) Tx 889.200 Rx 844.200 Channel 16 (661) Tx 889.830 Rx 844.830 Cell # 14 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (347) Tx 880.410 Rx 835.410 Channel 2 (368) Tx 881.040 Rx 836.040 Channel 3 (389) Tx 881.670 Rx 836.670 Channel 4 (410) Tx 882.300 Rx 837.300 Channel 5 (431) Tx 882.930 Rx 837.930 Channel 6 (452) Tx 883.560 Rx 838.560 Channel 7 (473) Tx 884.190 Rx 839.190 Channel 8 (494) Tx 884.820 Rx 839.820 Channel 9 (515) Tx 885.450 Rx 840.450 Channel 10 (536) Tx 886.080 Rx 841.080 Channel 11 (557) Tx 886.710 Rx 841.710 Channel 12 (578) Tx 887.340 Rx 842.340 Channel 13 (599) Tx 887.970 Rx 842.970 Channel 14 (620) Tx 888.600 Rx 843.600 Channel 15 (641) Tx 889.230 Rx 844.230 Channel 16 (662) Tx 889.860 Rx 844.860 Cell # 15 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (348) Tx 880.440 Rx 835.440 Channel 2 (369) Tx 881.070 Rx 836.070 Channel 3 (390) Tx 881.700 Rx 836.700 Channel 4 (411) Tx 882.330 Rx 837.330 Channel 5 (432) Tx 882.960 Rx 837.960 Channel 6 (453) Tx 883.590 Rx 838.590 Channel 7 (474) Tx 884.220 Rx 839.220 Channel 8 (495) Tx 884.850 Rx 839.850 Channel 9 (516) Tx 885.480 Rx 840.480 Channel 10 (537) Tx 886.110 Rx 841.110 Channel 11 (558) Tx 886.740 Rx 841.740 Channel 12 (579) Tx 887.370 Rx 842.370 Channel 13 (600) Tx 888.000 Rx 843.000 Channel 14 (621) Tx 888.630 Rx 843.630 Channel 15 (642) Tx 889.260 Rx 844.260 Channel 16 (663) Tx 889.890 Rx 844.890 Cell # 16 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (349) Tx 880.470 Rx 835.470 Channel 2 (370) Tx 881.100 Rx 836.100 Channel 3 (391) Tx 881.730 Rx 836.730 Channel 4 (412) Tx 882.360 Rx 837.360 Channel 5 (433) Tx 882.990 Rx 837.990 Channel 6 (454) Tx 883.620 Rx 838.620 Channel 7 (475) Tx 884.250 Rx 839.250 Channel 8 (496) Tx 884.880 Rx 839.880 Channel 9 (517) Tx 885.510 Rx 840.510 Channel 10 (538) Tx 886.140 Rx 841.140 Channel 11 (559) Tx 886.770 Rx 841.770 Channel 12 (580) Tx 887.400 Rx 842.400 Channel 13 (601) Tx 888.030 Rx 843.030 Channel 14 (622) Tx 888.660 Rx 843.660 Channel 15 (643) Tx 889.290 Rx 844.290 Channel 16 (664) Tx 889.920 Rx 844.920 Cell # 17 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (350) Tx 880.500 Rx 835.500 Channel 2 (371) Tx 881.130 Rx 836.130 Channel 3 (392) Tx 881.760 Rx 836.760 Channel 4 (413) Tx 882.390 Rx 837.390 Channel 5 (434) Tx 883.020 Rx 838.020 Channel 6 (455) Tx 883.650 Rx 838.650 Channel 7 (476) Tx 884.280 Rx 839.280 Channel 8 (497) Tx 884.910 Rx 839.910 Channel 9 (518) Tx 885.540 Rx 840.540 Channel 10 (539) Tx 886.170 Rx 841.170 Channel 11 (560) Tx 886.800 Rx 841.800 Channel 12 (581) Tx 887.430 Rx 842.430 Channel 13 (602) Tx 888.060 Rx 843.060 Channel 14 (623) Tx 888.690 Rx 843.690 Channel 15 (644) Tx 889.320 Rx 844.320 Channel 16 (665) Tx 889.950 Rx 844.950 Cell # 18 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (351) Tx 880.530 Rx 835.530 Channel 2 (372) Tx 881.160 Rx 836.160 Channel 3 (393) Tx 881.790 Rx 836.790 Channel 4 (414) Tx 882.420 Rx 837.420 Channel 5 (435) Tx 883.050 Rx 838.050 Channel 6 (456) Tx 883.680 Rx 838.680 Channel 7 (477) Tx 884.310 Rx 839.310 Channel 8 (498) Tx 884.940 Rx 839.940 Channel 9 (519) Tx 885.570 Rx 840.570 Channel 10 (540) Tx 886.200 Rx 841.200 Channel 11 (561) Tx 886.830 Rx 841.830 Channel 12 (582) Tx 887.460 Rx 842.460 Channel 13 (603) Tx 888.090 Rx 843.090 Channel 14 (624) Tx 888.720 Rx 843.720 Channel 15 (645) Tx 889.350 Rx 844.350 Channel 16 (666) Tx 889.980 Rx 844.980 Cell # 19 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (352) Tx 880.560 Rx 835.560 Channel 2 (373) Tx 881.190 Rx 836.190 Channel 3 (394) Tx 881.820 Rx 836.820 Channel 4 (415) Tx 882.450 Rx 837.450 Channel 5 (436) Tx 883.080 Rx 838.080 Channel 6 (457) Tx 883.710 Rx 838.710 Channel 7 (478) Tx 884.340 Rx 839.340 Channel 8 (499) Tx 884.970 Rx 839.970 Channel 9 (520) Tx 885.600 Rx 840.600 Channel 10 (541) Tx 886.230 Rx 841.230 Channel 11 (562) Tx 886.860 Rx 841.860 Channel 12 (583) Tx 887.490 Rx 842.490 Channel 13 (604) Tx 888.120 Rx 843.120 Channel 14 (625) Tx 888.750 Rx 843.750 Channel 15 (646) Tx 889.380 Rx 844.380 Cell # 20 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (353) Tx 880.590 Rx 835.590 Channel 2 (374) Tx 881.220 Rx 836.220 Channel 3 (395) Tx 881.850 Rx 836.850 Channel 4 (416) Tx 882.480 Rx 837.480 Channel 5 (437) Tx 883.110 Rx 838.110 Channel 6 (458) Tx 883.740 Rx 838.740 Channel 7 (479) Tx 884.370 Rx 839.370 Channel 8 (500) Tx 885.000 Rx 840.000 Channel 9 (521) Tx 885.630 Rx 840.630 Channel 10 (542) Tx 886.260 Rx 841.260 Channel 11 (563) Tx 886.890 Rx 841.890 Channel 12 (584) Tx 887.520 Rx 842.520 Channel 13 (605) Tx 888.150 Rx 843.150 Channel 14 (626) Tx 888.780 Rx 843.780 Channel 15 (647) Tx 889.410 Rx 844.410 Cell # 21 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (354) Tx 880.620 Rx 835.620 Channel 2 (375) Tx 881.250 Rx 836.250 Channel 3 (396) Tx 881.880 Rx 836.880 Channel 4 (417) Tx 882.510 Rx 837.510 Channel 5 (438) Tx 883.140 Rx 838.140 Channel 6 (459) Tx 883.770 Rx 838.770 Channel 7 (480) Tx 884.400 Rx 839.400 Channel 8 (501) Tx 885.030 Rx 840.030 Channel 9 (522) Tx 885.660 Rx 840.660 Channel 10 (543) Tx 886.290 Rx 841.290 Channel 11 (564) Tx 886.920 Rx 841.920 Channel 12 (585) Tx 887.550 Rx 842.550 Channel 13 (606) Tx 888.180 Rx 843.180 Channel 14 (627) Tx 888.810 Rx 843.810 Channel 15 (648) Tx 889.440 Rx 844.440 =============================================================================== Cellular phone frequency and cell construction =============================================================================== __ __ \__/C \__/D \__ \__/G \__/A \__/ _/D \__/E \__/F \__ \__/B \__/C \__/ _/F \__/G \__/A \__ \__/D \__/E \__/ _/A \__/B \__/C \__ \__/ \__/ \__/ This represents how a cellular system might be laid out. Cells A and B never share a common border. Neither do B and C, A and G, etc. Cells that are next to each other are never assigned adjacent frequencies. They always differ by at least 60 kiloHertz. To track a mobile phone as it changes cells, let's put the mobile in a B cell. When the mobile switches frequencies, you know that he could only go to an D, E, F or G cell because A and C have adjacent frequencies. The two tables below will help you determine which channel cells can go next to each other. You can contact your local cellular phone company and see if they have any maps of the cells available. This is not a sure thing, but it couldn't hurt to try. Cells that can go next to each other: Cell Compatible cells A C, D, E, F B D, E, F, G C E, F, G, A D F, G, A, B E G, A, B, C F A, B, C, D G B, C, D, E Here is a frequency/cell layout chart. The cell frequencies are used by the cell site towers, and the mobile frequencies are the input frequencies used by the cars. Wireline company cell frequencies (BAND B) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 889.890 889.920 889.950 889.980 ─┐ 889.680 889.710 889.740 889.770 889.800 889.830 889.860 │ 889.470 889.500 889.530 889.560 889.590 889.620 889.650 │ 889.260 889.290 889.320 889.350 889.380 889.410 889.440 │ 889.050 889.080 889.110 889.140 889.170 889.200 889.230 │ 888.840 888.870 888.900 888.930 888.960 888.990 889.020 │ 888.630 888.660 888.690 888.720 888.750 888.780 888.810 │ 888.420 888.450 888.480 888.510 888.540 888.570 888.600 │ 888.210 888.240 888.270 888.300 888.330 888.360 888.390 │ 888.000 888.030 888.060 888.090 888.120 888.150 888.180 │ 887.790 887.820 887.850 887.880 887.910 887.940 887.970 │ 887.580 887.610 887.640 887.670 887.700 887.730 887.760 │ 887.370 887.400 887.430 887.460 887.490 887.520 887.550 │ 887.160 887.190 887.220 887.250 887.280 887.310 887.340 │ 886.950 886.980 887.010 887.040 887.070 887.100 887.130 │ 886.740 886.770 886.800 886.830 886.860 886.890 886.920 │ 886.530 886.560 886.590 886.620 886.650 886.680 886.710 │ 886.320 886.350 886.380 886.410 886.440 886.470 886.500 │Voice 886.110 886.140 886.170 886.200 886.230 886.260 886.290 │ 885.900 885.930 885.960 885.990 886.020 886.050 886.080 │ 885.690 885.720 885.750 885.780 885.810 885.840 885.870 │ 885.480 885.510 885.540 885.570 885.600 885.630 885.660 │ 885.270 885.300 885.330 885.360 885.390 885.420 885.450 │ 885.060 885.090 885.120 885.150 885.180 885.210 885.240 │ 884.850 884.880 884.910 884.940 884.970 885.000 885.030 │ 884.640 884.670 884.700 884.730 884.760 884.790 884.820 │ 884.430 884.460 884.490 884.520 884.550 884.580 884.610 │ 884.220 884.250 884.280 884.310 884.340 884.370 884.400 │ 884.010 884.040 884.070 884.100 884.130 884.160 884.190 │Channels 883.800 883.830 883.860 883.890 883.920 883.950 883.980 │ 883.590 883.620 883.650 883.680 883.710 883.740 883.770 │ 883.380 883.410 883.440 883.470 883.500 883.530 883.560 │ 883.170 883.200 883.230 883.260 883.290 883.320 883.350 │ 882.960 882.990 883.020 883.050 883.080 883.110 883.140 │ 882.750 882.780 882.810 882.840 882.870 882.900 882.930 │ 882.540 882.570 882.600 882.630 882.660 882.690 882.720 │ 882.330 882.360 882.390 882.420 882.450 882.480 882.510 │ 882.120 882.150 882.180 882.210 882.240 882.270 882.300 │ 881.910 881.940 881.970 882.000 882.030 882.060 882.090 │ 881.700 881.730 881.760 881.790 881.820 881.850 881.880 │ 881.490 881.520 881.550 881.580 881.610 881.640 881.670 │ 881.280 881.310 881.340 881.370 881.400 881.430 881.460 │ 881.070 881.100 881.130 881.160 881.190 881.220 881.250 │ 880.860 880.890 880.920 880.950 880.980 881.010 881.040 │ 880.650 880.680 880.710 880.740 880.770 880.800 880.830 ─┘ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 880.440 880.470 880.500 880.530 880.560 880.590 880.620 ─┐Digital 880.230 880.260 880.290 880.320 880.350 880.380 880.410 │Control 880.020 880.050 880.080 880.110 880.140 880.170 880.200 ─┘Channels Wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND B) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 844.890 844.920 844.950 844.980 ─┐ 844.680 844.710 844.740 844.770 844.800 844.830 844.860 │ 844.470 844.500 844.530 844.560 844.590 844.620 844.650 │ 844.260 844.290 844.320 844.350 844.380 844.410 844.440 │ 844.050 844.080 844.110 844.140 844.170 844.200 844.230 │ 843.840 843.870 843.900 843.930 843.960 843.990 844.020 │ 843.630 843.660 843.690 843.720 843.750 843.780 843.810 │ 843.420 843.450 843.480 843.510 843.540 843.570 843.600 │ 843.210 843.240 843.270 843.300 843.330 843.360 843.390 │ 843.000 843.030 843.060 843.090 843.120 843.150 843.180 │ 842.790 842.820 842.850 842.880 842.910 842.940 842.970 │ 842.580 842.610 842.640 842.670 842.700 842.730 842.760 │ 842.370 842.400 842.430 842.460 842.490 842.520 842.550 │ 842.160 842.190 842.220 842.250 842.280 842.310 842.340 │ 841.950 841.980 842.010 842.040 842.070 842.100 842.130 │ 841.740 841.770 841.800 841.830 841.860 841.890 841.920 │ 841.530 841.560 841.590 841.620 841.650 841.680 841.710 │ 841.320 841.350 841.380 841.410 841.440 841.470 841.500 │Voice 841.110 841.140 841.170 841.200 841.230 841.260 841.290 │ 840.900 840.930 840.960 840.990 841.020 841.050 841.080 │ 840.690 840.720 840.750 840.780 840.810 840.840 840.870 │ 840.480 840.510 840.540 840.570 840.600 840.630 840.660 │ 840.270 840.300 840.330 840.360 840.390 840.420 840.450 │ 840.060 840.090 840.120 840.150 840.180 840.210 840.240 │ 839.850 839.880 839.910 839.940 839.970 840.000 840.030 │ 839.640 839.670 839.700 839.730 839.760 839.790 839.820 │ 839.430 839.460 839.490 839.520 839.550 839.580 839.610 │ 839.220 839.250 839.280 839.310 839.340 839.370 839.400 │ 839.010 839.040 839.070 839.100 839.130 839.160 839.190 │Channels 838.800 838.830 838.860 838.890 838.920 838.950 838.980 │ 838.590 838.620 838.650 838.680 838.710 838.740 838.770 │ 838.380 838.410 838.440 838.470 838.500 838.530 838.560 │ 838.170 838.200 838.230 838.260 838.290 838.320 838.350 │ 837.960 837.990 838.020 838.050 838.080 838.110 838.140 │ 837.750 837.780 837.810 837.840 837.870 837.900 837.930 │ 837.540 837.570 837.600 837.630 837.660 837.690 837.720 │ 837.330 837.360 837.390 837.420 837.450 837.480 837.510 │ 837.120 837.150 837.180 837.210 837.240 837.270 837.300 │ 836.910 836.940 836.970 837.000 837.030 837.060 837.090 │ 836.700 836.730 836.760 836.790 836.820 836.850 836.880 │ 836.490 836.520 836.550 836.580 836.610 836.640 836.670 │ 836.280 836.310 836.340 836.370 836.400 836.430 836.460 │ 836.070 836.100 836.130 836.160 836.190 836.220 836.250 │ 835.860 835.890 835.920 835.950 835.980 836.010 836.040 │ 835.650 835.680 835.710 835.740 835.770 835.800 835.830 ─┘ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 835.440 835.470 835.500 835.530 835.560 835.590 835.620 ─┐Digital 835.230 835.260 835.290 835.320 835.350 835.380 835.410 │Control 835.020 835.050 835.080 835.110 835.140 835.170 835.200 ─┘Channels =============================================================================== Non-wireline company cell frequencies (BAND A) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 879.900 879.930 879.960 879.990 ─┐Digital 879.690 879.720 879.750 879.780 879.810 879.840 879.870 │Control 879.480 879.510 879.540 879.570 879.600 879.630 879.660 │Channels ------------------------------------- 879.390 879.420 879.450 ─┘ 879.270 879.300 879.330 879.360 --------------------------- ─┐ 879.060 879.090 879.120 879.150 879.180 879.210 879.240 │ 878.850 878.880 878.910 878.940 878.970 879.000 879.030 │ 878.640 878.670 878.700 878.730 878.760 878.790 878.820 │ 878.430 878.460 878.490 878.520 878.550 878.580 878.610 │ 878.220 878.250 878.280 878.310 878.340 878.370 878.400 │ 878.010 878.040 878.070 878.100 878.130 878.160 878.190 │ 877.800 877.830 877.860 877.890 877.920 877.950 877.980 │ 877.590 877.620 877.650 877.680 877.710 877.740 877.770 │ 877.380 877.410 877.440 877.470 877.500 877.530 877.560 │ 877.170 877.200 877.230 877.260 877.290 877.320 877.350 │ 876.960 876.990 877.020 877.050 877.080 877.110 877.140 │ 876.750 876.780 876.810 876.840 876.870 876.900 876.930 │ 876.540 876.570 876.600 876.630 876.660 876.690 876.720 │ 876.330 876.360 876.390 876.420 876.450 876.480 876.510 │ 876.120 876.150 876.180 876.210 876.240 876.270 876.300 │ 875.910 875.940 875.970 876.000 876.030 876.060 876.090 │ 875.700 875.730 875.760 875.790 875.820 875.850 875.880 │ Voice 875.490 875.520 875.550 875.580 875.610 875.640 875.670 │ 875.280 875.310 875.340 875.370 875.400 875.430 875.460 │ 875.070 875.100 875.130 875.160 875.190 875.220 875.250 │ 874.860 874.890 874.920 874.950 874.980 875.010 875.040 │ 874.650 874.680 874.710 874.740 874.770 874.800 874.830 │ 874.440 874.470 874.500 874.530 874.560 874.590 874.620 │ 874.230 874.260 874.290 874.320 874.350 874.380 874.410 │ 874.020 874.050 874.080 874.110 874.140 874.170 874.200 │ 873.810 873.840 873.870 873.900 873.930 873.960 873.990 │ 873.600 873.630 873.660 873.690 873.720 873.750 873.780 │ 873.390 873.420 873.450 873.480 873.510 873.540 873.570 │ Channels 873.180 873.210 873.240 873.270 873.300 873.330 873.360 │ 872.970 873.000 873.030 873.060 873.090 873.120 873.150 │ 872.760 872.790 872.820 872.850 872.880 872.910 872.940 │ 872.550 872.580 872.610 872.640 872.670 872.700 872.730 │ 872.340 872.370 872.400 872.430 872.460 872.490 872.520 │ 872.130 872.160 872.190 872.220 872.250 872.280 872.310 │ 871.920 871.950 871.980 872.010 872.040 872.070 872.100 │ 871.710 871.740 871.770 871.800 871.830 871.860 871.890 │ 871.500 871.530 871.560 871.590 871.620 871.650 871.680 │ 871.290 871.320 871.350 871.380 871.410 871.440 871.470 │ 871.080 871.110 871.140 871.170 871.200 871.230 871.260 │ 870.870 870.900 870.930 870.960 870.990 871.020 871.050 │ 870.660 870.690 870.720 870.750 870.780 870.810 870.840 │ 870.450 870.480 870.510 870.540 870.570 870.600 870.630 │ 870.240 870.270 870.300 870.330 870.360 870.390 870.420 │ 870.030 870.060 870.090 870.120 870.150 870.180 870.210 ─┘ Non-wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND A) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 834.900 834.930 834.960 834.990 ─┐Digital 834.690 834.720 834.750 834.780 834.810 834.840 834.870 │Control 834.480 834.510 834.540 834.570 834.600 834.630 834.660 │Channels ------------------------------------- 834.390 834.420 834.450 ─┘ 834.270 834.300 834.330 834.360 --------------------------- ─┐ 834.060 834.090 834.120 834.150 834.180 834.210 834.240 │ 833.850 833.880 833.910 833.940 833.970 834.000 834.030 │ 833.640 833.670 833.700 833.730 833.760 833.790 833.820 │ 833.430 833.460 833.490 833.520 833.550 833.580 833.610 │ 833.220 833.250 833.280 833.310 833.340 833.370 833.400 │ 833.010 833.040 833.070 833.100 833.130 833.160 833.190 │ 832.800 832.830 832.860 832.890 832.920 832.950 832.980 │ 832.590 832.620 832.650 832.680 832.710 832.740 832.770 │ 832.380 832.410 832.440 832.470 832.500 832.530 832.560 │ 832.170 832.200 832.230 832.260 832.290 832.320 832.350 │ 831.960 831.990 832.020 832.050 832.080 832.110 832.140 │ 831.750 831.780 831.810 831.840 831.870 831.900 831.930 │ 831.540 831.570 831.600 831.630 831.660 831.690 831.720 │ 831.330 831.360 831.390 831.420 831.450 831.480 831.510 │ 831.120 831.150 831.180 831.210 831.240 831.270 831.300 │ 830.910 830.940 830.970 831.000 831.030 831.060 831.090 │ 830.700 830.730 830.760 830.790 830.820 830.850 830.880 │ Voice 830.490 830.520 830.550 830.580 830.610 830.640 830.670 │ 830.280 830.310 830.340 830.370 830.400 830.430 830.460 │ 830.070 830.100 830.130 830.160 830.190 830.220 830.250 │ 829.860 829.890 829.920 829.950 829.980 830.010 830.040 │ 829.650 829.680 829.710 829.740 829.770 829.800 829.830 │ 829.440 829.470 829.500 829.530 829.560 829.590 829.620 │ 829.230 829.260 829.290 829.320 829.350 829.380 829.410 │ 829.020 829.050 829.080 829.110 829.140 829.170 829.200 │ 828.810 828.840 828.870 828.900 828.930 828.960 828.990 │ 828.600 828.630 828.660 828.690 828.720 828.750 828.780 │ 828.390 828.420 828.450 828.480 828.510 828.540 828.570 │ Channels 828.180 828.210 828.240 828.270 828.300 828.330 828.360 │ 827.970 828.000 828.030 828.060 828.090 828.120 828.150 │ 827.760 827.790 827.820 827.850 827.880 827.910 827.940 │ 827.550 827.580 827.610 827.640 827.670 827.700 827.730 │ 827.340 827.370 827.400 827.430 827.460 827.490 827.520 │ 827.130 827.160 827.190 827.220 827.250 827.280 827.310 │ 826.920 826.950 826.980 827.010 827.040 827.070 827.100 │ 826.710 826.740 826.770 826.800 826.830 826.860 826.890 │ 826.500 826.530 826.560 826.590 826.620 826.650 826.680 │ 826.290 826.320 826.350 826.380 826.410 826.440 826.470 │ 826.080 826.110 826.140 826.170 826.200 826.230 826.260 │ 825.870 825.900 825.930 825.960 825.990 826.020 826.050 │ 825.660 825.690 825.720 825.750 825.780 825.810 825.840 │ 825.450 825.480 825.510 825.540 825.570 825.600 825.630 │ 825.240 825.270 825.300 825.330 825.360 825.390 825.420 │ 825.030 825.060 825.090 825.120 825.150 825.180 825.210 ─┘ Monitoring of the base sites is obviously going to be easier than monitoring the mobiles. The cell base sites are towers (usually blue) with a triangle shaped "head" on top, and sporting a couple of what appear to be vertical antennas. These base sites have a range of 3-5 miles. If you take a look at the honeycomb diagram, you can see how they are laid out. The cell transmitter is in the middle of the cell. It is possible to hear many, most, or all of the cells in your city, depending on your location. The closer you live to a boundary, the greater the chances of your being able to receive more cells. Due to the nature of radio signals, the actual cell shape is more or less round. However, the hexagon shape lends itself better to show how the system is laid out. With a circular coverage area, there will be some overlapping between adjacent cells. __ __ \__/C \__/D \__ \__/G \__/A \__/ _/D \__/E \__/F \__ \__/B \__*C \__/ _/F \__/G \__/A \__ \__/D \__/E \__/ _/A \__/B \__/C \__ \__/ \__/ \__/ If, for example, you live near the asterisk (*) in the above diagram, you will be able go easily hear the G, C, E, and A cells you're near. Since the maximum _practical_ range of a cell is 3-5 miles, you'll be able to hear them a bit farther away. However, due to the nature of the FM transceivers at the cell sites (they capture only the _strongest_ signal), you should be able to hear all seven cells. Which _one_ of each cell you hear will depend on your location and the strength of the received signal. In the above diagram, you'll most likely hear the F cell in the upper right, rather than the one on the left. Mobile reception is almost a waste of time unless you have an outdoor antenna. And, since the mobile will be repeated on the cell site, it's better to listen to the cell frequencies. You may not be able to hear both sides of the conversation if you listen only to the mobile frequencies!!! It is useful, however, for determining which channel cell you're in. If you use the antenna that came with the scanner, mobile range will be decreased down to 1 or 2 miles. By checking the scanner readout against the cell list above (825.030-844.980 MHz), you can tell what cell the mobile is in. This is also useful on the cell site frequencies. If you hear someone say, "I'm at the corner of highway FF and 37," and you know where the cell site antenna is in that area, you can check the frequency listing above and determine what cell that antenna belongs to. ******************************************************************************* Where to get What you NEED! Obviously, a device is needed to download all those ESN/MINs etc. off the cellular airwaves. Heres the stuff I found so far that is under $2000 (This ain't a cheap hobby) CCS Company, P.O. Box 11191, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (Mark 414-781-2482) They sell everything ya need for $3-400. Kits are cheaper. Their device interfaces between a 800 mhz capable scanner & your computer. Make sure you tell them you want the REVERSE model DDI. (this tis what I use) Curtis Electro Devices, 1235 Pear Ave, Mountain View,CA 94043 800-332-2790 Fax 415-964-3574 They sell an ESN reader for $1295 that can read ESN\MIN\etc. but only from a short distance (Max= 30 ft.) They also sell a security model for $1595 and a nam programmer for $1195. They publish a book called NAMFAX for $179 that tells ya how to re-program hundreds of different cellulars through the keypad on the handset. (Note-You can't reprogram ESNs through the keypap unless you re-write the phones software.) Wavetek Communications Div., 5808 Churchman Bypass, Indianapolis, IN 46203-6109, 800-245-6356 or 317-788-5965 They sell a "Cellular I.D. Tester" thats real similiar to Curtis's ESN reader but supposedly has a longer range. price= $1495. Needham Electronics, 4539 Orange Grove Ave., Sacramento, CA 95841 916-924-8037 They sell eprom burners for $139.95 (I bought one myself) Motorola, 1-800-433-5202 They sell a Cellular service manual thats used in their cellular service classes for $30. Ask for the Order Fullfillment dept: Item # 68-093-00a60. This manual tells it all! An absolute must to have. (Remember-ya can use your credit card for many items! hehe) Bishop Co: 800-829-0572 They publish books similiar to Curtis's Namfax. send for catalog ****************************************************************** Cellular Security Well we know a properly cloned cell phone is virtually impossible to detect- or is it? Security companies rely on matching call patterns of subscribers historys to current use. I.E. when 200 calls to Bum Fuck Egypt show up in a day or 80 long distance calls to Culman Alabama show up in a short period, all kinds of Flags & whistles go off! The security companies will even keep records of people that call numbers that have been previously called by Tumbled phones & flag the phone calling that number as a potential fraudulent phone. These flags can be set go go off by a number of parameters: Number of LD calls per Hr/Day/mo, etc. Another method they use is when the real phone places a call & the Tumbled phone places another call soon afterwards, but from a distance from the 1st call thats impossible to travel in such a short period of time. I.E. At 5 P.M. friday phone A calls from Manhatten & completes call at 5.10 p.m. At 5.12 P.M. Cloned phone B calls from Queens. No-one can travel those distances in 2 minutes, thus that ESN/MIN is tagged as a Clone by the phone company. These databases are just now starting to be used in larger cities. Some software will track a flagged cell phone from cell site to cell site. Commonly used discrepancies cell co software looks for are different ESNs, Manufacturer, model, SCMs, etc. that are broadcast by the cellular phone on its REVERSE channel. (If one captures all that data off the Reverse channel & incorporates it in the CLONED phone, detection via this method becomes nearly impossible.) Some daring souls have been known to use fake ID & Cards to even subscribe to a cellular service, then burn out the phone before the first months bill arrives to the unsuspecting real person. **************************************************************************** Conclusion The future for cellular fraud is wide open. As the secret software of the over 300 brands of cellular phones in existance becomes "Cracked" and re-written and spread via the underground, Fraud will increase like Wildfire. Virtually nothing can be done to stop the informed phone phreak as he will change ESN/MINs, etc. easily and frequently. A new era not seen since the 2600 hz tone was discovered is just now dawning via cellular phreaking. Nuff Said, Bootleg P.S. Since I'm lettin the cat out of the bag for the 1st time here, I hereby dub the box needed to read REVERSE channels the BOO Box! (Shit- after 12 years I finally get to name a box.) hehe =============================================================================== The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 and CMT =============================================================================== The ECPA, passed in 1986, is partly responsible for the extreme interest in CMT monitoring. After all, if you tell someone they can't listen to these phone calls, they'll immediately want to do so. "There must be _something_ going on there that's either interesting or important. Why else would they want to keep us from listening?" seems to be the predominant reaction. Be assured that it is illegal under the ECPA to listen to cellular phone calls. This law was passed mainly to satisfy the CMT manufacturers. They can now tell their customers that their conversations are 'protected by federal law.' However, when this law was drawn up, it was obviously felt to be too narrow in its views, since it protected only one service. So it was amended to include various services, such as microwaves, some satellites, broadcast STL links (studio-transmitter links), and the descrambling of scrambled signals. However, from the very beginning, the government has shown an extremely bored attitude when it comes to the ECPA. There is virtually no attempt at enforcement, unless it's a case involving blackmail, or an overt attempt is being made to provide radios with CMT-specific frequencies. In the latter case, a dealer was modifying the radios he was selling. After a government visit, he agreed not to modify the radios, but he was allowed to include instructions on how to make the modification. With the Pro-2005 and Pro-2006, this consists of opening the radio and clipping one diode, an operation that takes all of 15 minutes, including disassembly. What does all this mean? You can receive any frequency you wish. There is literally no way to tell what you're listening to in the privacy of your home. Your scanner (as well as EVERY radio) _does_ transmit an extremely small amount of RF energy from the local oscillator, but unless the radio is in very bad shape, that energy won't go past 40 or 50 feet. The "gummint" would have to drive around in detection vans with beam antennas, and with 100,000 scanner owners, it's an extremely good bet that they're not even going to consider thinking about the merest possibility that someone might put this idea forward to be comtemplated. They've got more important stuff to worry about. What it comes down to is this: listen to whatever you want to, but don't divulge it or use the information for personal or illegal gain. That will get you into deep doo-doo in double-quick time. Most people have the opinion that if it's unscrambled, and it's passing freely through their home and body, that they have the right to receive it. This sounds like good solid thinking. The laws of this land provide for just compensation to individuals. Perhaps a few bills to CMT companies for transmission rights would help to remove this silly law from the books. =============================================================================== The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 =============================================================================== February 2, 1987 TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PART I. CRIMES Chapter Sec. * * * General provisions............................................. 1 * * * 119. Wire and electronic communications interception and interception of oral communications................. 2510 * * * 121. Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional Records Access...................................... 2701 * * * PART II. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 201. General provisions.................................. 3001 * * * 206. Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices............ 3121 * * * CHAPTER 65 - MALICIOUS MISCHIEF Sec. * * * 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite. * * * { 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite (a) Whoever, without the authority of the satellite operator, intentionally or maliciously interferes with the authorized operation of a communications or weather satellite or obstructs or hinders any satellite transmission shall be fined in accordance with this title or imprisoned not more than ten years of both. (b) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency or of an intelligence agency of the United States. * * * CHAPTER 109 - SEARCHES AND SEIZURES * * * { 2232. Destruction or removal of property to prevent seizure (a) Physical Interference With Search. -- Whoever, before, during, or after seizure of any property by any person authorized to make searches and seizures, in order to prevent the seizure or securing of any goods, wares, or merchandise by such person, staves, breaks, throws overboard, destroys, or removes the same, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned more than five years, or both. (b) Notice of Search. -- Whoever, having knowledge that any person authorized to make searches and seizures has been authorized or is otherwise likely to make a search or seizure, in order to prevent the authorized seizing or securing of any per- son, goods, wares, merchandise or other property, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible search or seizure to any person shall be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (c) Notice of Certain Electronic Surveillance. -- Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization under chapter 119 to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such interception, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible interception to any person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization to conduct electronic surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (50 U.S.C. 1801, et seq.), in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such activity, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible activity to any person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. * * * CHAPTER 119 -- WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS INTERCEPTION AND INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS Sec. 2510. Definitions. 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications prohibited. 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited. 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting devices. 2514. Immunity of witnesses. 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral or electronic communications. 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized. 2521. Injunction against illegal interception. { 2510. Definitions As used in this chapter -- (1) "wire communication" means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications affecting interstate or foreign commerce and such term includes any electronic storage of such communication, but such term does not include the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit; (2) "oral communication" means any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying such expectation, but such term does not include any electronic communication; * * * (4) "intercept" means the aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device. (5) "electronic mechanical, or other device" means any device or apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication other than -- (a) any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communication service in the ordinary course of its business and being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its business or furnished by such subscriber or user for connection to the facilities of such service and used in the ordinary course of its business; or (ii) being used by a communications common carrier in the ordinary course of its business, or by an investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of his duties; * * * (8) "contents", when used with respect to any wire, oral, or electronic communication, includes any information concerning the substance, purport, or meaning of that communication; (9) "Judge of competent jurisdiction" means -- (a) a judge of a United States district court or a United States court of appeals; and (b) a judge of any court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State who is authorized by a statute of that State to enter orders authorizing interceptions of wire, oral, or electronic communications; (10) "communication common carrier" shall have the same meaning which is given the term "common carrier" by section 153(h) of title 47 of the United States Code; (11) "aggrieved person" means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against whom the interception was directed; (12) "electronic communication" means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photo optical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce, but does not include -- (A) the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit; (B) any wire or oral communication; (C) any communication made through a tone-only paging device; or (D) any communication from a tracking device (as defined in section 3117 of this title); (13) "user" means any person or entity who -- (A) uses an electronic communication service; and (B) is duly authorized by the provider of such service to engage in such use; (14) "electronic communications system" means any wire, radio, electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the transmission of electronic communications, and any computer facilities or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such communications; (15) "electronic communication service" means any service which provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications; (16) "readily accessible to the general public" means, with respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not -- (A) scrambled or encrypted; (B) transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of such communication; (C) carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (D) transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system communication; or (E) transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25, subpart D, E, or F of part 74, or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio; (17) "electronic storage" means -- (A) any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission thereof; and (B) any storage of such communication by an electronic communication service for purposes of backup protection of such communication; and (18) "aural transfer" means a transfer containing the human voice at any point between and including the point of origin and the point of reception. { 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any person who-- (a) intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral, or electronic communication; (b) intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any other person to use or endeavor to use any electronic, mechanical, or other device to intercept any oral communication when -- (i) such device is affixed to, or otherwise transmits a signal through, a wire, cable, or other like connection used in wire communication; or (ii) such device transmits communications by radio, or interferes with the transmission of such communication; or (iii) such person knows, or has reason to know, that such device or any component thereof has been sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or (iv) such use or endeavor to use (A) takes place on the premises of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (B) obtains or is for the purpose of obtaining information relating to the operations of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (v) such person acts in the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States; (c) intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or have reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; or (d) intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) or shall be subject to suit as provided in subsection (5). (2)(a)(i) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire or electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of his employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service, except that a provider of wire communication service to the public shall not utilize service observing or random monitoring except for mechanical or service quality control checks. (ii) Notwithstanding any other law, providers of wire or electronic communication service, their officers, employees, and agents, landlords, custodians, or other persons, are authorized to provide information facilities, or technical assistance to persons authorized by law to intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications or to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, if such provider its officers, employees, or agents, land- lord, custodian, or other specified person has been provided with -- (A) a court order directing such assistance signed by the authorizing judge, or (B) a certification in writing by a person specified in section 2518(7) of this title or the Attorney General of the United States that no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is required. setting forth the period of time during which the provision of the information, facilities, or technical assistance is authorized and specifying the information, facilities, or technical assistance required. No provider of wire or electronic communication service officer, employee, or agent thereof, or landlord, custodian, or other specified person shall disclose the existence of any interception or surveillance of the device used to accomplish the interception or surveillance with respect to which the person has been furnished an order or certification under this subparagraph, except as may otherwise be required by legal process and then only after prior notification to the Attorney General or to the principal prosecuting attorney of a State or any political subdivision of a State, as may be appropriate. Any such disclosure, shall render such person liable for the civil damages provided for in section 2520. No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service its officers, employees, or agents, landlord, custodian, or other specified person for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order or certification under this chapter. (b) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an officer, employee, or agent of the Federal Communications Commission, in the normal course of his employment and in discharge of the monitoring responsibilities exercised by the Commission in the enforcement of chapter 5 of title 57 of the United States Code, to intercept a wire or electronic communication, or oral communication transmitted by radio, or to disclose or use the information thereby obtained. (c) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, where such person is a party to the communication or one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception. (d) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or section 705 or 706 of the Communications Act of 1934, it shall not be unlawful for an office, employee, or agent of the United States in the normal course of his official duty to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as authorized by that Act. (f) Nothing contained in this chapter or chapter 121, or section 705 of the Communications Act of 1934, shall be deemed to affect the acquisition by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from international or foreign communication, or foreign intelligence activities conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than electronic surveillance as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and procedures in this chapter and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of such Act, and the interception of domestic wire and oral communications may be conducted. (g) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter or chapter 121 of this title for any person -- (i) to intercept or access an electronic communication made through an electronic communication system that is configured so that such electronic communication is readily accessible to the general public; (ii) to intercept any radio communication which is transmitted -- (I) by any station for the use of the general public, or that relates to ships, aircraft, vehicles, or persons in distress; (II) by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense private land mobile, or public safety communications system, including police and fire, readily accessible to the general public; (III) by a station operating on an authorized frequency within the bands allocated to the amateur, citizens band, or general mobile radio services; or (IV) by any marine or aeronautical communications system; (iii) to engage in any conduct which -- (I) is prohibited by section 633 of the Communications Act of 1934; or (II) is excepted from the application of section 705(a) of the Communications Act of 1934 by section 705(b) of that Act; (iv) to intercept any wire or electronic communication the transmission of which is causing harmful interference to any lawfully operating station or consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of such interference; or (v) for other users of the same frequency to intercept any radio communication made through a system that utilizes frequencies monitored by individuals engaged in the provision or the use of such system, if such communication is not scrambled or encrypted. (h) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter -- (i) to use a pen register or a trap and trace device (as those terms are defined for the purposes of chapter 206 (relating to pen registers and trap and trace devices) of this title); or (ii) for a provider of electronic communication service to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire or electronic communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of such service. (3)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection a person or entity providing an electronic communication service to the public shall not intentionally divulge the contents of any communication (other than one to such person or entity, or an agent thereof) while in transmission on that service to any person or entity other than an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient. (b) A person or entity providing electronic communication service to the public may divulge the contents of any such communication -- (i) as otherwise authorized in section 2511(2)(a) or 2517 of this title; (ii) with the lawful consent of the originator or any addressee or intended recipient of such communication; (iii) to a person employed or authorized, or whose facilities are used, to forward such communication to its destination; or (iv) which were inadvertently obtained by the service provider and which appear to pertain to the commission of a crime, if such divulgence is made to a law enforcement agency. (4)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection or in subsection (5), whoever violates subsection (1) of this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (b) If the offense is a first offense under paragraph (a) of this subsection and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, and the wire or electronic communication with respect to which the offense under paragraph (a) is a radio communication that is not scrambled or encrypted, then -- (i) If the communication is not the radio portion of a cellular telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service communication or a paging service communication, and the conduct is not that described in subsection (5), the offender shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, and (ii) if the communication is the radio portion of a cellular telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service communication or a paging service communication, the offender shall be fined not more than $500. (c) Conduct otherwise an offense under this subsection that consists of or relates to the interception of a satellite transmission that is not encrypted or scrambled and that is transmitted -- (i) to a broadcasting station for purposes of retransmission to the general public; or (ii) as an audio subcarrier intended for redistribution to facilities open to the public, but not including data transmissions or telephone calls, is not an offense under this subsection unless the conduct is for the purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial gain. (5)(a)(i) If the communication is -- (A) a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of that communication and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain; or (B) a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain. then the person who engages in such conduct shall be subject to suit by the Federal Government in a court of competent jurisdiction. (ii) In an action under this subsection -- (A) if the violation of this chapter is a first offense for the person under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) and such person has not been found liable in a civil action under section 2520 of this title, the Federal Government shall be entitled to appropriate injunctive relief; and (B) if the violation of this chapter is a second or subsequent offense under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) or such person has been found liable in any prior civil action under section 2520, the person shall be subject to a mandatory $500 civil fine. (b) The court may use any means within its authority to enforce an injunction issued under paragraph (ii)(A), and shall impose a civil fine of not less than $500 for each violation of such an injunction, { 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any person who intentionally -- (a) sends through the mail, or sends or carriers in interstate or foreign commerce, any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications; (b) manufacturers, assembles, possesses, or sells any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, and that such device or any component thereof has been or will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or (c) places in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publication any advertisement of-- (i) any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications; or (ii) any other electronic, mechanical, or other device, where such advertisement promotes the use of such device for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, knowing or having reason to know that such advertisement will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (2) It shall not be unlawful under this section for- (a) a provider of wire or electronic communication service or an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, such a provider, in the normal course of the business of providing that wire or electronic communication service, or (b) an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, in the normal course of the activities of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, to send through the mail, send or carry in interstate or foreign commerce, or manufacture, assemble, possess, or sell any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. { 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting devices Any electronic, mechanical, or other device used, sent, carried, manufactured, assembled, possessed, sold, or advertised in violation of section 2511 or section+ 2512 of this chapter may be seized and forfeited to the United States. All provisions of law relating to (1) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violations of the customs laws contained in title 19 of the United States Code, (2) the disposition of such vessels, - vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from the sale thereof, (3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, (4) the compromise of claims, and (5) the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures, shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section; except that such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the provisions of the customs laws contained in title 19 of the United States Code shall be performed with respect to seizure and forfeiture of electronic, mechanical, or other intercepting devices under this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be authorized or designated for that purpose of the Attorney General. { 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications Whenever any wire, oral, or electronic communications has been intercepted, no part of the contents of such communication and no evidence derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof if the disclosure of that information would be in violation of this chapter. { 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) The Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorney General, any Assistant Attorney General, any acting Assistant Attorney General, or any Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Criminal Division specially designated by the Attorney General, may authorize an application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire of oral communications by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or a Federal agency having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of- (a) any offense punishable by death or by imprisonment for more than one year under sections 2274 through 2277 of title 42 of the United States Code (relating to the enforcement of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954), section 2284 of title 42 of the United States Code (relating to sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel), or under the following chapters of this title: chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), chapter 115 (relating to treason), chapter 192 (relating to riots), chapter 65 (relating to malicious matter mischief), chapter 111 (relating to destruction of vessels), or chapter 81 (relating to piracy); (b) a violation of section 186 or section 501(c) of title 29, United States Code (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to labor organizations), or any offense which involves murders, kidnapping, robbery, or extortion, and which is punishable under this title; c) any offense which is punishable under the following section of this title: section 201 (bribery of public officials and witnesses), section 224 (bribery in sporting contests), subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of section 844 (unlawful use of explosives), section 1084 (transmission of wagering information), section 751 (relating to escape), sections 1503, 1512, and 1513 (influencing or injuring an officer, juror, or witness generally), section 1510 (obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1751 (Presidential and Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 1951 (interference with commerce by threats or violence), section 1952 (interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering enterprises), section 1952A (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder for hire), section 1952B (relating to violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity), section 1954 (offer acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of employee benefit plan), section 1955 (prohibition of business enterprises of gambling), section 659 (theft from interstate shipment), section 664 (embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), section 1343 (fraud by wire, radio, or television), section 2252 or 2253 (sexual exploitation of children), Section 2251 and 2252 (sexual exploitation of children), section 2312, 2313, 2314, and 2315 (interstate transportation of stolen property), the second section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1029 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section 3146 (relating to penalty for failure to appear), section 3521(b)(3) (relating to witness relocation and assistance), section 32 (relating to destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities), section 1963 violations with respect to racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations), section 115 (relating to threatening or retaliating against a Federal official), the section in chapter 65 relating to destruction of an energy facility, and section 1341 (relating to mail fraud), section 351 (violations with respect to congressional, Cabinet, or Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 831 (relating to prohibited transaction involving nuclear materials), section 33 (relating to destruction of motor vehicles or motor vehicle facilities), or section 1992 (relating to wrecking trains); (d) any offense involving counterfeiting punishable under section 471, 472, or 473 of this title; (e) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title 11 or the manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana, or other dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States; (f) any offense including extortionate credit transactions under sections 892, 893, or 894 of this title; (g) a violation of section 5322 of title 31, United States Code (dealing with the reporting of currency transactions); (h) any felony violation of sections 511 and 2512 (relating to interception and disclosure of certain communications and to certain intercepting devices) of this title; (i) any violation of section 1679(c)(2) (relating to destruction of a natural gas pipeline) or subsection (i) or (n) of the United States Code; (j) any criminal violation of section 2778 of title 22 (relating to the Arms Export Control Act); or (k) the location of any fugitive from justice from an offense described in this section; or (l) any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses. (2) The principal prosecuting attorney of any State, or the principal prosecuting attorney of any political subdivision thereof, if such attorney is authorized by a statute of that State to make application to a State court judge of competent jurisdiction for an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, may apply to such judge for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter and with the applicable State statute an order authorizing, or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications by investigative or law enforcement of officers having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of the commission of the offense of murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, or dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana or other dangerous drugs, or other crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year, designated in any applicable State statute authorizing such interception, or any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses. (3) Any attorney for the Government (as such term is defined for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure) may authorize an application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant, in conformity with section 2518 of this title, an order authorizing or approving the interception of electronic communications by an investigative or law enforcement officer having responsibility for the investigation of the offense s to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of any Federal felony. { 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication (1) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom may disclose such contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer to the extent that such disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure. (2) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by an means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom any use such contents to the extent such use is appropriate to the proper performance of his official duties. (3) Any person who has received, by any means authorized by this chapter, any information concerning a wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter may disclose the contents of that communication or such derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any proceeding held under the authority of the United States of of any State or political subdivision thereof. (4) No otherwise privileged wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of this chapter shall lose its privileged character. (5) When an investigative or law enforcement officer, while engaged in intercepting wire or oral communications in the manner authorized herein, intercepts wire, oral, or electronic communications relating to offenses other than those specified in the order of authorization or approval, the contents thereof, and evidence derived therefrom, may be disclosed or used as provided in subsections (1) and (2) of this section. Such contents and any evidence derived therefrom may be used under subsection (3) of this section when authorized or approved by a judge of competent jurisdiction where such judge finds on subsequent application that the contents were otherwise intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Such application shall be made as soon as practicable. { 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) Each application for an order authorizing or approving the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge of competent jurisdiction and shall state the applicant's authority to make such application. Each application shall include the following information: (a) the identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer making the application, and the officer authorizing the application; (b) a full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant, to justify his belief that an order should be issued, including (i) details as to the particular offense that has been, is being, or is about to be committed, (ii) except as provided in subsection (11), a particular description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communication is to be intercepted, (iii) a particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted, (iv) the identity of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted; (c) a full and complete statement as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (d) a statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained. If the nature of the investigation is such that the authorization for interception should not automatically terminate when the described type of communication has been first obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur thereafter; (e) a full and complete statement of the facts concerning all previous applications known to the individual authorizing and making the application, made to any judge for authorization to intercept, or for approval of interceptions of, wire, oral, or electronic communications involving any of the same persons, facilities or places specified in the application; and (f) where the application is for the extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such results. (2) The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional testimony or documentary evidence in support of the application. (3) Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as requested or as modified, authorizing or approving interception of wire, oral or electronic communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the court in which the judge is sitting (and outside that jurisdiction but within the United States in the case of a mobile interception device authorized by a Federal court within such jurisdiction) if the judge determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that- (a) there is probable cause for belief that an individual is committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense enumerated in section 2516 of this chapter; (b) there is probable cause for brief that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such interception; (c) normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (d) except as provided in subsection (11), there is probable cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where the wire, oral, or electronic communications are to be intercepted are being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission of such offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by such person. (4) Each order authorizing or approving the interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall specify- (a) the identity of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted; (b) the nature and location of the communications facilities as to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted; (c) a particular description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates; (d) the identity of the agency authorized to intercept the communications, and of the person authorizing the application; and (e) the period of time during which such interception is authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception shall automatically terminate when the described communication has been first obtained. An order authorizing the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall, upon request of the applicant, direct that a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or other person shall furnish the applicant forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that such service provider, landlord, custodian, or person is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted. Any provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or other person furnishing such facilities or technical assistance shall be compensated therefor by the applicant for reasonable express incurred in providing such facilities or assistance. (5) No order entered under this section may authorize or approve the interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization nor in any event longer than thirty days. Such thirty-day period begins on the earlier of the day on which the investigative or law enforcement officer first begins to conduct an interception under the order or ten days after the order is entered. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with subsection (1) of this section and the court making the findings required by subsection (3) of this section. The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and in no event for longer than thirty days. Every order and extension thereof shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize the interception of communications not otherwise, subject to interception under this chapter, and must terminate upon attainment of the authorized objective, or in any event in thirty days. In the event the intercepted communications is in a code or foreign language, and an expert in that foreign language or code is not reasonably available during the interception period, minimization may be accomplished as soon as practicable after such interception. An interception under this chapter may be conducted in whole or in part by Government personnel, or by an individual operating under a contract with the Government, acting under the supervision of an investigative or law enforcement officer authorized to conduct the interception. (6) Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to this chapter, the order may require reports to be made to the judge who issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of the authorized objective and the need for continued interception. Such reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require. (7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any investigative or law enforcement officer, specially designated by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, or by the principal prosecuting attorney of any State or subdivision thereof acting pursuant of that State, who reasonably determines that- (a) an emergency situation exists that involves- (i) immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to any person; (ii) conspiratorial activities threatening the national security interest; or (iii) conspiratorial activities characteristic of organized crime, that requires a wire, oral, or electronic communication to be intercepted before an order authorizing such interception can, with due diligence, be obtained, and (b) there are grounds upon which an order could be entered under this chapter to authorize such interception. may intercept such wire, oral, or electronic communication if an application for an order approving the interception is made in accordance with this section within forty-eight hours after the interception has occurred, or begins to occur. In the absence of an order, such interception shall immediately terminate when the communication sought is obtained or when the application for the order is denied, whichever is earlier. In the event such application for approval is denied, or in any other case where the interception is terminated without an order having been issued, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter, and an inventory shall be served as provided for in subsection (d) of this section on the person named in the application. (8)(a) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted by any means authorized by this chapter shall, if possible, be recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this subsection shall be done in such a way as will protect the recording from editing or other alterations. Immediately upon the expiration of the period of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available to the judge issuing such order and sealed under this directions. Custody of the recordings shall be wherever the judge orders. They shall not be destroyed except upon an order of the issuing or denying judge and in any event shall be kept for ten years. Duplicate recordings may be made for use or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsections (2) and (2) of section 2517 of this chapter for investigations. The presence of the seal provided for by this section, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence thereof, shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom under subsection (3) of section 2517. (b) Applications made and orders granted under this chapter shall be sealed by the judge. Custody of the applications and orders shall be wherever the judge directs. Such applications and orders shall be disclosed only upon a showing of good cause before a judge of competent jurisdiction and shall not be destroyed except on order of the issuing or denying judge, and in any event shall be kept for ten years. (c) Any violation of the provisions of this subsection may be punished as contempt of the issuing or denying judge. (d) Within a reasonable time but not later than ninety days after the filing of an application for an order of approval under section 2518(7)(b) which is denied or the termination of the period of an order or extensions thereof, the issuing or denying judge shall cause to be served, on the persons named in the order or the application, and such other parties to intercepted communications as the judge may determine in his discretion that is in the interest of justice, and inventory which shall include notice of- (1) the fact of the entry of the order or the application; (2) the date of the entry and the period of authorized, approved or disapproved interception, or the denial of the application, and (3) the fact that during the period wire, oral, or electronic communications were or were not intercepted. The judge, upon the filing of a motion, may in his discretion make available to such person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communications, applications and orders as the judge determines to be in the interest of justice. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a judge of competent jurisdiction the serving of the inventory required by this subsection may be postponed. (9) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted pursuant to this chapter or evidence derived therefrom shall not be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in a Federal or State court unless each party, not less then ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, has been furnished with a copy of the court order, and accompanying application, under which the interception was authorized or approved. This ten-day period may be waived by the judge if he finds that it was not possible to furnish the party with the above information ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in receiving such information. (10)(a) Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing, or proceeding in or before the any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any wire or oral communication intercepted pursuant to this chapter, or evidence derived therefrom, on the grounds that- (i) the communication was unlawfully intercepted; (ii) the order of authorization or approval under which it was intercepted is insufficient on its face; or (iii) the interception was not made in conformity with the order of authorization or approval. Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or proceeding unless there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of the grounds of the motion. If the motion is granted, the contents of the intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter. The judge, upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in his discretion make available to the aggrieved person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communication or evidence derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice. (b) In addition to any other right to appeal, the United States shall have the right to appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made under paragraph (a) of this subsection, or the denial of an application for an order of approval, if the United States attorney shall certify to the judge or other official granting such motion or denying such application the the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay. Such appeal shall be taken within thirty days after the date the order was entered and shall be diligently prosecuted. (c) The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter with respect to the interception of electronic communications are the only judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter involving such communications. (11) The requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of the section relating to the specification of the facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be intercepted do not apply if- (a) in the case of an application with respect to the interception of an oral communication- (i) the application is by a federal investigative or law enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney General; (ii) the application contains a full and complete statement as to why such specification is not practical and identifies the person committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted; and (iii) the judge finds that such specification is not practical; and (b) in the case of an application with respect to a wire or electronic communication- (i) the application is by a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, and Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney General; (ii) the application identifies the person believed to be committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted and the applicant makes a showing of a purpose, on the part of that person, to thwart interception by changing facilities; and (iii) the judge finds that such purpose has been adequately shown. (12) An interception of a communication under an order with respect to which the requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of this section do not apply by reason of subsection (11) shall not begin until the facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be intercepted is ascertained by the person implementing the interception order. A provider of wire or electronic communications service that has received an order as provided for in subsection (11)(b) may move the court to modify or quash the order on the ground that its assistance with respect to the interception cannot be performed in a timely or reasonable fashion. The court, upon notice to the government, shall decide such a motion expeditiously. { 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) Within thirty days after the expiration of an order (or each extension thereof) entered under section 2518, or the denial of an order approving an interception, the issuing or denying judge shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts- (a) the fact that an order or extension was applied for; (b) the kind of order or extension was applied for (including whether or not the order was an order with respect to which the requirements of sections 2518(1)(b)(ii) and 2581(3)(d) of this title did not apply by reason of section 2518(11) of title); (c) the fact that the order or extension was granted as applied for, was modified, or was denied; (d) the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the number and duration of any extensions of the order; (e) the offense specified in the order or application, or extension or an order; (f) the identity of the applying investigative or law enforcement officer and agency making the application and the person authorizing the application; and (g) the nature of the facilities from which or the place where communications were to be intercepted. (2) In January of each year the Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General, or the principal prosecuting attorney of a State, or the principal prosecuting attorney for any political subdivision of a State, shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts- (a) the information required by paragraphs (a) through (g) of subsection (1) of this section with respect to each application for an order or extension made during the preceding calendar year; (b) a general description of the interceptions made under such order or extension, including (i) the approximate nature and frequency of incriminating communications intercepted, (ii) the approximate nature and frequency of other communications intercepted, (iii) the approximate number of persons whose communications were intercepted, and (iv) the approximate nature, amount, and cost of the manpower and other resources used in the interceptions; (c) the number of arrests resulting from interceptions made under such order or extension, and the offenses for which arrests were made; (d) the number of trials resulting from such interceptions; (e) the number of motions to suppress made with respect to such interceptions, and the number granted or denied; (f) the number of convictions resulting from such interceptions and the offenses for which the convictions were obtained and a general assessment of the importance of the interceptions; and (g) the information required by paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection with respect to orders or extensions obtained in a preceding calendar year. (3) In April of each year the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall transmit to the Congress a full and complete report concerning the number of applications for orders authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications pursuant to this chapter and the number of orders and extensions granted or denied pursuant to this chapter during the preceding calendar year. Such report shall include a summary and analysis of the data required to be filed with the Administrative Office by subsections (1) and (2) of this section. The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is authorized to issue binding regulations dealing with the content and form of the reports required to be filed by subsections (1) and (2) of this section. { 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized (a) IN GENERAL,--Except as provided in section 2511(2)(a)(ii), any person whose wire, oral, or electronic communication is intercepted, disclosed, or intentionally used in violation of this chapter may in a civil action recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation such relief as may be appropriate. (b) RELIEF.--In an action under this section, appropriate relief includes- (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may be appropriate; (2) damages under subsection (c) and punitive damages in appropriate cases; and (3) a reasonable attorney's fee and other litigation costs reasonably incurred. (c) COMPUTATION OF DAMAGES.--(1) In an action under this section, if the conduct is in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted or if the communication is a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, then the court shall assess damages as follows: (A) If the person who engaged in that conduct has not previously been enjoined under section 2511(5) and has not been found liable in a prior civil action under this section, the court shall assess the greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or statutory damages of not less than $50 and not more than $500. (B) If, on one prior occasion, the person who engaged in that conduct has been enjoined under section 2511(5) or has been found liable in a civil action under this section, the court shall assess the greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or statutory damages of not less than $100 and not more than $1,000. (2) In any other action under this section, the court may assess as damages whichever is the greater of- (A) the sum of the actual damages suffered by the plaintiff and any profits made by the violator as a result of the violation; or (B) statutory damages of whichever is the greater of $100 a day for each day of violation or $10,000. (d) DEFENSE.--A good faith reliance on- (1) a court warrant or order, a grand jury subpoena, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization; (2) a request of an investigative or law enforcement officer under section 2518(7) of this title; or (3) a good faith determination that section 2511(3) of this title permitted the conduct complained of; is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law. (e) LIMITATION.--A civil action under this section may not be commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first has a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation. { 2521. Injunction against illegal interception Whenever it shall appear that any person is engaged or is about to engage in any act which constitutes or will constitute a felony violation of this chapter, the Attorney General may initiate a civil action in a district court of the United States to enjoin such violation. The court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination of such an action, and may, at any time before final determination, enter such a restraining order or prohibition, or take such other action, as is warranted to prevent a continuing and substantial injury to the United States or to any person or class of persons for whose protection the action is brought. A proceeding under this section is governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, except that, if an indictment has been returned against the respondent, discovery is governed by the federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. CHAPTER 121- STORED WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONAL RECORDS ACCESS Sec. 2701. Unlawful access to stored communications. 2702. Disclosure of contents. 2703. Requirements for governmental access. 2704. Backup preservation. 2705. Delayed notice. 2706. Cost reimbursement. 2707. Civil action. 2708. Exclusivity of remedies. 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional records. 2710. Definitions 2701. Unlawful access to stored communications (a) OFFENSE.- Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section whoever- (1) intentionally accesses without authorization a facility through which an electronic communication service is provided; or (2) intentionally exceeds an authorization to access that facility; and thereby obtains, alters, or prevents authorized access to a wire or electronic communication while it is in electronic storage in such system shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section. (b) PUNISHMENT.- The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of this section is- (1) if the offense is committed for purposes of commercial advantage, malicious destruction or damage, or private commercial gain- (A) a fine of not more than $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of a first offense under this subparagraph; and (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, for any subsequent offense under this subparagraph; and (2) a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than six months, or both, in any case. (c) EXCEPTIONS.- Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized- (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service; (2) by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user; or (3) in section 2703, 2704 or 2518 of this title. { 2702. Disclosure of contents (a) PROHIBITIONS.- Except as provided in subsection (b)- (1) a person or entity operating an electronic communication service to the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of a communication while in electronic storage by that service; and (2) a person or entity providing remote computing service to the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of any communication which is carried or maintained on that service- (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from (or created by means of computer processing of communications received by means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such service; and (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing any services other than storage or computer processing. (b) EXCEPTIONS.- A person or entity may divulge the contents of a communication- (1) to an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient; (2) as otherwise authorized in section 2516, 2511(2)(a), or 2703 of this title; (3) with the lawful consent of the originator or an addressee or intended recipient of such communication, or the subscriber in the case of remote computing service; (4) to a person employed or authorized or whose facilities are used to forward such communication to its destination; (5) as may be necessarily incident to the rendition of the service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service; or (6) to a law enforcement agency, if such contents- (A) were inadvertently obtained by the service provider; and (B) appear to pertain to the commission of a crime. { 2703. Requirements for governmental access (a) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN ELECTRONIC STORAGE.- A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communication service of the contents of an electronic communication, that is in electronic storage in an electronic communications system for one hundred and eighty days or less, only pursuant to a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant. A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communications services of the contents of an electronic communication that has been in storage in an electronic communications system for more than one hundred and eighty days by the means available under subsection (b) of this section. (b) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN A REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1) A governmental entity may require a provider of remote computing service to disclose the contents of any electronic communication to which this paragraph is made applicable by paragraph (2) of this subsection- (A) without required notice to the subscriber or customer, if the governmental entity obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; or (B) with prior notice from the governmental entity to the subscriber or customer if the governmental entity- (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; or (ii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of this section; except that delayed notice may be given pursuant to section 2705 of this title. (2) Paragraph (1) is applicable with respect to any electronic communication that is held or maintained on that service- (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from (or created by means of computer processing of communications received by means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such remote computing service; and (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing any services other than storage or computer processing. (c) RECORDS CONCERNING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE OR REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service may disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to any person other than a governmental entity. (B) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service shall disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to a governmental entity only when the governmental entity- (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute, or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; (ii) obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; (iii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of this section; or (iv) has the consent of the subscriber or customer to such disclosure. (2) A governmental entity receiving records or information under this subsection is not required to provide notice to a subscriber or customer. (d) REQUIREMENTS FOR COURT ORDER.- A court order for disclosure under subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall issue only if the governmental entity shows that there is reason to believe the contents of a wire or electronic communication, or the records or other information sought, are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry. In the case of a State governmental authority, such a court order shall not issue if prohibited by the law of such State. A court issuing an order pursuant to this section, on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify such order, if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in nature or compliance with such order otherwise would cause an undue burden on such provider. (e) NO CAUSE OF ACTION AGAINST A PROVIDER DISCLOSING INFORMATION UNDER THIS CHAPTER.- No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order, warrant, subpoena or certification under this chapter. { 2704. Backup preservation (a) BACKUP PRESERVATION.- (1) A governmental entity acting under section 2703(b)(2) may include in its subpoena or court order a requirement that the service provider to whom the request is directed create a backup copy of the contents of the electronic communications sought in order to preserve those communications. Without notifying the subscriber or customer of such subpoena or court order, such service provider shall create such backup copy as soon as practicable consistent with its regular business practices and shall confirm to the governmental entity that such backup copy has been made. Such backup copy shall be created within two business days after receipt by the service provider of the subpoena or court order. (2) Notice to the subscriber or customer shall be made by the governmental entity within three days after receipt of such confirmation, unless such notice is delayed pursuant to section 2705(a). (3) The service provider shall not destroy such backup copy until the later of -- (A) the delivery of the information; or (B) the resolution of any proceedings (including appeals of any proceeding) concerning the government's subpoena or court order. (4) The service provider shall release such backup copy to the requesting governmental entity no sooner than fourteen days after the governmental entity's notice to the subscriber or customer if such service provider -- (A) has not received notice from the subscriber or customer that the subscriber or customer has challenged the governmental entity's request; and (B) has not initiated proceedings to challenge the request of the governmental entity. (5) A governmental entity may seek to require the creation of a backup copy under subsection (a)(1) of this section if in its sole discretion such entity determines that there is reason to believe that notification under section 2703 of this title of the existence of the subpoena or court order may result in destruction of or tampering with evidence. This determination is not subject to challenge by the subscriber or customer or service provider. (b) CUSTOMER CHALLENGES -- (1) Within fourteen days after notice by the governmental entity to the subscriber or customer under subsection (a)(2) of this section, such subscriber or customer may file a motion to quash such subpoena or vacate such court order, with copies served upon the governmental entity and with written notice of such challenge to the service provider. A motion to vacate a court order shall be filed in the court which issued such order. A motion to quash a subpoena shall be filed in the appropriate United States district court or State court. Such motion or application shall contain an affidavit or sworn statement -- (A) stating that the applicant is a customer or subscriber to the service from which the contents of electronic communications maintained for him have been sought; and (B) stating the applicant's reasons for believing that the records sought are not relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry or that there has not been substantial inquiry or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter in some other respect. (2) Service shall be made under this section upon a governmental entity by delivering or mailing by registered or certified mail a copy of the papers to the person, office, or department specified in the notice which the customer has received pursuant to this chapter. For the purposes of this section, the term "delivery" has the meaning given that term in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. (3) If the court finds that the customer has complied with paragraphs (1) an (2) of this subsection, the court shall order the governmental entity to file a sworn response, which may be filed in camera if the governmental entity includes in its response the reasons which make in camera review appropriate. If the court is unable to determine the motion or application on the basis of the parties' initial allegations and response, the court may conduct such additional proceedings as it deems appropriate. All such proceedings shall be completed and the motion or application decided as soon as practicable after the filing of the governmental entity's response. (4) If the court finds that the applicant is not the subscriber or customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are maintained, or that there is a reason to believe that the law enforcement inquiry is legitimate and that the communications sought are relevant to that inquiry, it shall deny the motion or application and order such process enforced. If the court finds that the applicant is the subscriber or customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are maintained, and that there is not a reason to believe that the communications sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry, or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter, it shall order the process quashed. (5) A court order denying a motion or application under this section shall not be deemed a final order and no interlocutory appeal may be taken therefrom by the customer. { 2705. Delayed notice (a) DELAY OF NOTIFICATION --(1) A governmental entity acting under section 2703(b) of this title may -- (A) where a court order is sought, include in the application a request, which the court shall grant, for an order delaying the notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed ninety days, if the court determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the court order may have an adverse result described in paragraph (2) of this subsection; or (B) where an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena is obtained, delay the notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed ninety days upon the execution of a written certification of a supervisory official that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the subpoena may have an adverse result described in paragraph (2) of this subsection. (2) An adverse result for the purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection is -- (A) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual; (B) flight from prosecution; (C) destruction of or tampering with evidence; (D) intimidation of potential witnesses; or (E) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial. (3) The governmental entity shall maintain a true copy of certification under paragraph (1)(B). (4) Extensions of the delay of notification provided in section 2703 of up to ninety days each may be granted by the court upon application, or by certification by a governmental entity, but only in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. (5) Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification under paragraph (1) or (4) of this subsection, the governmental entity shall serve upon, or deliver by registered or first-class mail to, the customer or subscriber a copy of the process or request together with notice that -- (A) states with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry; and (B) informs such customer or subscriber -- (i) that information maintained for such customer or subscriber by the service provider named in such process or request was supplied to or requested by that governmental authority and the date on which the supplying or request took place. (ii) that notification of such customer or subscriber was delayed; (iii) what governmental entity or court made the certification or determination pursuant to which that delay was made; and (iv) which provision of this chapter allowed such delay. (6) As used in this subsection, the term "supervisory official" means the investigative agent in charge or assistant investigative agent in charge or an equivalent of an investigating agency's headquarters or regional office, or the chief prosecuting attorney or the first assistant prosecuting attorney or an equivalent of a prosecuting attorney's headquarters or regional office. (b) PRECLUSION OF NOTICE TO SUBJECT OF GOVERNMENTAL ACCESS. -- A governmental entity acting under section 2703, when it is not required to notify the subscriber or customer under section 2703(b)(1), or to the extent that it may delay such notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may apply to a court for an order commanding a provider of electronic communications service or remote computing service to whom a warrant, subpoena, or court order is directed, for such period as the court deems appropriate, not to notify any other person of the existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order. The court shall enter such an order if it determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order will results in -- (1) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual; (2) flight from prosecution; (3) destruction of or tampering with evidence; (4) intimidation of potential witnesses; or (5) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial. { 2706. Cost reimbursement (a) PAYMENT -- Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), a governmental entity obtaining the contents of communications, records, or other information under section 2702, 2703, or 2704 of this title shall pay to the person or entity assembling or providing such information a fee for reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been directly incurred in searching for, assembling, reproducing, or otherwise providing such information. Such reimbursable costs shall include any costs due to necessary disruption of normal operations of any electronic communication service or remote computing service in which such information may be stored. (b) AMOUNT -- The amount of the fee provided by subsection (a) shall be as mutually agreed by the governmental entity and the person or entity providing the information, or in the absence of agreement, shall be as determined by the court which issued the order for production of such information (or the court before which a criminal prosecution relating to such information would be brought, if no court order was issued for production of the information). (c) The requirement of subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to records or other information maintained by a communications common carrier that relate to telephone toll records and telephone listings obtained under section 2703 of this title. The court may, however, order a payment as described in subsection (a) if the court determines the information required is unusually voluminous in nature or otherwise caused an undue burden on the provider. { 2707. Civil action (a) CAUSE OF ACTION. -- Except as provided in section 2703(e), any provider of electronic communication service, subscriber, or customer aggrieved by any violation of this chapter in which the conduct constituting the violation is engaged in with a knowing or intentional state of mind may, in a civil action, recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation such relief as may be appropriate. (b) RELIEF. -- IN a civil action under this section, appropriate relief includes -- (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may be appropriate; (2) damages under subsection (c); and 1/2 of (b), all of (c) & (d) omitted see p. 514,447 (e) LIMITATION. -- A civil action under this section may not be commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first discovered or had a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation. { 2708. Exclusivity of remedies The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter are the only judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter. { 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional records (a) DUTY TO PROVIDE. -- A wire or electronic communication service provider shall comply with a request for subscriber information and toll billing records information, or electronic communication transactional records in its custody or possession made by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation under subsection (b) of this section. (b) REQUIRED CERTIFICATION. -- The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or an individual within the Federal Bureau of Investigation designated for this purpose by the Director) may request any such information and records if the Director (or the Director's designee) certifies in writing to the wire or electronic communication service provider to which the request is made that -- (1) the information sought is relevant to an authorized foreign counterintelligence investigation; and (2) there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe that the person or entity to whom the information sought pertains is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801). (c) PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN DISCLOSURE. -- No wire or electronic communication service provider, or officer, employee, or agent thereof, shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained access to information or records under this section. (d) DISSEMINATION BY BUREAU. -- The Federal Bureau of Investigation may disseminate information and records obtained under this section only as provided in guidelines approved by the Attorney General for foreign intelligence collection and foreign counterintelligence investigations conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and, with respect to dissemination to an agency of the United States, only if such information is clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency. (e) REQUIREMENT THAT CERTAIN CONGRESSIONAL BODIES BE INFORMED. -- On a semi-annual basis the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate concerning all requests made under subsection (b) of this section. { 2710. Definitions for chapter As used in this chapter - (1) the terms defined in section 2510 of this title have, respectively, the definitions given such terms in that section; and (2) the term "remote computing service" means the provision to the public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic communications system. CHAPTER 205-SEARCHES AND SEIZURES Sec. 3101. Effect of rules of court--Rules * * * 3117. Mobile tracking devices. * * * { 3117. Mobile tracking devices (a). IN GENERAL.--If a court is empowered to ussue a warrant or other order for the installation of a mobile tracking device, such order may authorize the use of that device within the jurisdiction of the court, and outside that jurisdiction if the device is installed in that jurisdiction. (b). DEFINITION.--As used in this section, the term "tracking device" means an electronic or mechanical device which permits the tracking of the movement of a person or object. CHAPTER 206-PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP TRACE DEVICES Sec. 3121. General prohibition on pen register on trap and trace device use; exception. 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device. 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap or trace device. 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device. 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices. 3126. Definitions for chapter. { 3121. General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use; exception (a) In General.-Except as provided in this section, no person may install or use a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order under section 3123 of this title or under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). (b) Exception.-The prohibition of subsection (a) does not apply with respect to the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device by a provider of electronic or wire communication service- (1) relating to the operation, maintenance, and testing of a wire or electronic communication service or to the protection of the rights or property of such provider, or to the protection of users of that service from abuse of service or unlawful use of service; or (2) to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of service; or with the consent of the user of that service. (c) Penalty.-Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. { 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) Application.-(1) An attorney for the Government may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction. (2) Unless prohibited by State law, a State investigative law enforcement officer may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction of such State. (b) Contents Of Application.-An application under subsection (a) of this section shall include- (1) the identity of the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer making the application and the identity of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and (2) a certification by the applicant that the information likely to be obtained is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by that agency. { 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) In General.-Upon an application made under section 3122 of this title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device within the jurisdiction of the court if the court finds that the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation. (b) Contents Of Order.-An order issued under this section- (1) shall specify- (A) the identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in whose name is listed the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached; (B) the identity, if known, of the person who is the subject of the criminal investigation; (C) the number and, if known, physical location of the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and trace order; and (D) a statement of the offense to which the information likely to be obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device relates; and (2) shall direct, upon the request of the applicant, the furnishing of information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section 3124 of this title. (c) Time Period And Extensions.-(1) An order issued under this section shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device for a period not to exceed sixty days. (2) Extensions of such an order may be granted, but only upon an application for an order under section 3122 of this title and upon the judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section. The period of extension shall be for a period not to exceed sixty days. (d) Non-disclosure Of Existence Of Pen Register Or A Trap And Trace Device.-An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device shall direct that- (1) the order be sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and (2) the person owning or leasing the line to which the pen register or a trap and trace device is attached, or who has been ordered by the court to provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to the listed subscriber, or to any other person, unless or until otherwise ordered by the court. { 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) Pen Registers.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to install and use a pen register under this chapter, a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. (b) Trap And Trace Device.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to receive the results of a trap and trace device under this chapter, a provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall install such device forthwith on the appropriate line and shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer all additional information, facilities and technical assistance including installation and operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the results of the trap and trace device shall be furnished to the officer of a law enforcement agency, designated in the court, at reasonable intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order. (c) Compensation.-A provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such facilities and assistance. (d) No Cause Of Action Against A Provider Disclosing Information Under This Chapter.-No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of a wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order under this chapter. (e) Defense.-A good faith reliance on a court order, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law. { 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices The Attorney General shall annually report to Congress on the number of pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice. { 3126. Definitions for chapter As used in this chapter- (1) the terms "wire communication", "electronic communication", and "electronic communication service" have the meanings set forth for such terms in section 2510 of this title; (2) the term "court of competent jurisdiction" means- (A) a district court of the United States (including a magistrate of such a court) or a United States Court of Appeals; or (B) a court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State authorized by the law of that State to enter orders authorizing the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device; (3) the term "pen register" means a device which records or decodes electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise transmitted on the telephone line to which such device is attached, but such term does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to billing, for communications services provided by such provider or any device used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business; (4) the term "trap and trace" device means a device which captures the incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was transmitted; (5) the term "attorney for the Government" has the meaning given such term for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and (6) the term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States. =============================================================================== A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA =============================================================================== WHEN IS LISTENING TO THE RADIO A CRIME? By FRANK TERRANELLA The federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act has turned many radio listeners into criminals. The problem is, most of them don't know about it. I will attempt here to describe in very non-legalistic and general terms (extremely difficult for a lawyer), exactly what listening is legal and what is illegal. Section 2511 of the Federal Criminal Statutes (18 U.S.C.) is where most of the action is in this field. The statute is primarily a wiretap and bug statute and only recently has been expanded to include radio listening. I will not be discussing the provisions dealing with oral communications or wiretaps and bugging devices here. The statute starts out by saying that it is illegal to intentionally intercept, disclose or use the contents of any wire or electronic communication. The statute then goes on to carve out exceptions to this general rule. It is important to understand what the law means by wire or electronic communication. A wire communication is any communication over a telephone or other wire. However, the definition specifically includes cellular telephones and excludes cordless telephones (even though both involve the use of radio and wire transmission). An electronic communication includes all radio transmissions, but excludes cordless telephones and pagers. After making a blanket prohibition of intercepting all electronic (i.e. radio) transmissions, the statute lists the exceptions. The first exception is that it is legal to listen to all radio transmissions which are "readily accessible to the general public." This term is defined in the statute to mean radio signals which are (1) not encrypted, scrambled, carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (2) not transmitted over a common carrier communications system (such as the phone company); (3) not special transmissions such as point-to-point private relay transmissions for the broadcast services, not meant for reception by the general public. The next exception to the general rule is that it is legal to listen to all radio broadcasts "relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress." The statute also says that it is legal to listen to a broadcast by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense, private land mobile or public safety communications system, including police and fire, which are readily accessible to the general public. It is also legal to listen to transmissions on the amateur bands, citizens band or general mobile radio services as well as any marine or aeronautical communications system and cordless telephone transmission. Finally, it is not illegal to intercept satellite transmissions of cable programming as long as the transmission is not encrypted, there is no monetary gain by the viewer, and there is no marketing system available (meaning no one is selling the rights to view the programming via satellite). There is also an interesting section of the statute which may provide a loophole for lawyers defending clients charged with a violation of this law. The statute says that it is not illegal to intercept a radio transmission which is causing interference with any lawfully operating station (including ham radio operators), or is causing interference with any consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of the interference. I can see a lawyer arguing that his client was only listening to that cellular telephone transmission because it was interfering with his client's reception on the 23 centimeter band. After all of the exceptions are carved out, the bottom line is that the only radio frequency transmissions which are off limits are those which are not readily accessible to the general public, as that term is defined in the statute. The definition of "readily accessible to the general public" is stated in the statute as follows: (a) not scrambled or encrypted; (b) not transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of such communication; (c) not carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (d) not transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system communication; (e) not transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25; subpart D,E, or F of part 74; or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio. The first two of these are no problem. If the signal is scrambled, law-abiding DXers will leave it alone. Paragraph (c) begins the real restrictions on DXers. Under the statutory definition, signals on a subcarrier, such as the types being experimented with in television at the moment, are not readily accessible to the general public and are not permitted listening. The next section poses the greatest problem for DXers. Under the definition, any signal, other than a tone, which is transmitted by a common carrier is off limits. The FCC defines a common carrier as "any person engaged in rendering communication service for hire to the public." (47 CFR 21.2) The statutory definition given in 47 U.S.C. 153(h) is a bit more specific in that it specifically excludes radio broadcasters who, through sale of commercials, do render a communication service for hire. But, even with the removal of broadcasters, this definition is very broad and will include, beyond obvious services such as cellular telephone, just about every utility station on the face of the earth. The types of radio transmissions made off limits to DXers by paragraph (e) are certain satellite communications, certain microwave communications, and auxiliary stations to broadcasters used for such things as feeds from the mobile van back to the studio or from the studio to the transmitter. The frequencies of these services are all above 1 Gigahertz except for the bands 928-929 MHz and 944-960 Mhz. The exception to this is the frequency assignment given to remote broadcast pickup stations under subpart D of part 74. This service, which is off-limits to DXers, is assigned bits and pieces of the radio spectrum from 1606 kHz through 455.925 Mhz. Twenty-six frequencies in the shortwave bands are allocated to this service. The allocations are scattered between 25.87 Mhz and 26.47 Mhz, but unless you have a copy of the FCC Rules and Regulations, there is no easy way for a DXer to know that listening to these transmissions is a federal offense. This is precisely why I maintain that this law is unenforceable. In order for a prosecution under 18 U.S.C. 2511 to be successful, the government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the DXer intentionally intercepted a protected transmission. Since even attorneys are unsure what frequencies are off-limits, how can the government hope to prove that a DXer who happens upon one of these federally-legislated minefields in the radio spectrum, actually intended to do so? It should be noted that the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 605) has not been repealed by the new law. It is still illegal, as it has been since at least 1934, to divulge the contents of any transmission except for general broadcast stations, amateur radio and CB transmissions, and transmissions relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress. A recent case (Edwards v. State Farm Insurance Co., 833 F.2d 535) concluded that in order to prove an offense under this statute, the speaker must have held a subjective expectation of privacy that was justifiable under the circumstances. I hope that this brief trip through the legal maze of communications privacy has been useful. I can see the day coming when some industrious lawyer, defending a client of means, decides to challenge this unjust law. The basis is very simple. Just as there is no Fourth Amendment right of privacy where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, so too there should not be a statutory right of privacy where anyone with a receiver can listen in. To use an analogy, the providers of cellular service want the right to parade down Main Street with no clothes on and then prosecute anyone who looks. This is simply unfair and unrealistic. And beyond that, our First Amendment freedom of speech has a corollary freedom to be informed and to gather information. This freedom must extend to the spoken as well as the printed word, as long as no reasonable expectations of privacy are violated. Anyone with a receiver should be entitled to hear anything which is broadcast in the clear over the "public" airwaves for the simple reason that it is not reasonable for anyone to transmit in this manner and expect this transmission to be private. An expectation of privacy can only be achieved by scrambling the signal, not by governmental decree. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FRANK TERRANELLA is an attorney, ham radio operator and short wave listener (not necessarily in that order). =============================================================================== Modifying two scanners for cellular reception =============================================================================== The word "modifying" in this case is wrong. That implies that there is a _conversion_ process whereby you can cause your scanner to suddenly begin receiving cellular mobile telephone calls. This is wrong thinking. A scanner that is _designed_ to receive those frequencies above 512 MHz can have those frequencies RESTORED (_sometimes_). A scanner that covers from 30-512 MHz can NEVER receive 800-900 MHz frequencies without the aid of an external RF converter. Many times you will see messages from people asking how to modify such-and-such a receiver to pick up CMT. The sad truth is, the answer is $$$, as that's what it will take to get a new scanner that covers those frequencies. Some older scanners (most of them in fact) have no modifications so that they will cover these frequencies. There may be cosmetic changes, such as the addition of an S-meter, or squelch or tone improvement, but there will never, ever be anything that can be done to most of them to make them cover CMT. The PRO-2004/2005/34 receivers originally had those frequencies, but had them blocked out. Restoring those frequencies was simply a matter of _unblocking_ them. There was really no "modifying" taking place. If a scanner was never intended to cover 800 MHz, it never will. You can get RF converters that will convert 800-912 MHz down to 400-512 MHz, however, and these should work on all scanners. MOST SCANNERS CANNOT BE MODIFIED OR CHANGED TO RECEIVE THE CMT FREQUENCIES. There are a handful of exceptions to this. It started out with the Realistic PRO-2004 and the PRO-34, and went to the PRO-2005. To restore CMT for the 2004, open the radio and turn it upside down. You'll see a large metal box. Carefully remove the cover. Find diode D-513. It may be in the line of diodes, or it may be on the bottom of the PC board, in which case you'll have to VERY carefully remove the board. In either case, the cure is the same. Clip one leg of D-513 to restore CMT frequencies. If you're careful, you can unsolder this diode and place it in the empty spot at D-510. That will give you 400 channels instead of 300. For the PRO-2005, the procedure is the same, except you clip one leg of D-502 to restore cellular reception. In the 2004, put a 1N914 diode in D-514 and you'll increase your scan/search speed by 25%. Watch your diode polarity! For the PRO-2005, it's D-501, which is on the display board behind the keyboard. Adding D-504 to the PRO-2005 will DELETE 66-88 MHz coverage -- TV channels, radio control, etc., so don't add D-504!!!! As far as is known, there is no channel expansion capability on the order of the PRO-2004 for the PRO-2005. 400 channels appears to be its limit. The PRO-34 handheld can also have CMT restored, and all can be modified to receive 6,400 channels (3,200 on the PRO-34), but that's beyond the capability of this article. I could have typed in the directions for restoring CMT to the PRO-34, but you really need pictures to go with the modification. The original article was in "Popular Communications." All these are described in great detail in the "Scanner Modification Handbook" by Bill Cheek, available from CRB Research Books, Inc., PO Box 56, Commack, New York, 11725. It's $17.95 + $2.00 postage and handling, but is well worth the price due to the treasure trove of info that's in it. =============================================================================== How to discover other scanner modifications =============================================================================== HOW TO 'DISCOVER' THOSE NEAT RADIO MODIFICATIONS How do the people that discover modifications to radios go about finding them? Good question! The first rule of thumb is to obtain service manuals, as they contain more than just troubleshooting information. For example, the alignment procedure outlined in the Regency K500 and M400 service manuals describes how to circumvent the frequency limit checking firmware, which allows out of band frequency programming. The Uniden 200/205XLT service manual describes a keyboard sequence that clears most of the 200 memory channels, and loads the others with bizarre test frequencies. Service manuals often describe the circuit changes in models intended for export to other countries. This can reveal features disabled for some customers but enabled for others. A good library of IC and semiconductor data books is very helpful, although radio service manuals can also include IC internal diagrams. Old TTL databooks are no longer enough. The transition to surface mount components in radios like the Uniden/Bearcat 760XLT is motivation for acquiring data books for leadless components. Although some modifications involve discovery of "hidden" features, many others involve designing new circuitry or applying old circuitry from another radio. I can't claim credit for many "add/delete a diode" modifications, but here are the factors that accounted for a few other modifications. ***** Recognize Common Radio Circuits ***** Modification: Improve the squelch on the PRO-24, PRO-2004, 800XLT, etc. Motivation: Unsatisfied with stock performance. Almost all modern scanners use MC3357, MC3359, or Japanese pin equivalent chips, which contain the IF, squelch, limiter & discriminator circuitry. Older Bearcat and Regency scanners, like the BC300 and M400, often hid the identity of their IC with "house numbers" painted over them. I compared these ICs pin for pin with the MC3357 and other known radio ICs to unmask their true identity. Having the Motorola IC data sheet and scanner service manuals made learning the chip internals easy, so I found the way to decrease hysteresis involved changing one resistor. ***** Be Curious ***** Modification: Trick the Icom R-71A to tune below 100 kHz. Motivation: Curiosity. Tried manipulating several front panel controls at the same time to see if I could confuse the microprocessor into doing something neat. I did. ***** Study the Schematic, Look for Unused Pins ***** Modification: Double the memory in the R-7000 (also published by another radio hobbyist). Motivation: curiosity. I studied the schematic of the R-7000, and looked up the memory IC in a data book. Icom grounded an address lead, so only 1/2 the chip capacity was used. Not having enough time to try the idea on my own radio, I suggested the idea Jack Albert, who writes the RTTY column in "Monitoring Times", who used his R-7000 as a guinea pig. ***** Borrow Circuits from Other Radio Models ***** Modification: S-meter circuit for Bearcat scanners (unpublished). Motivation: wanted to use scanners for transmitter hunting. I looked for other radios that used the same IF/squelch chip and already featured S-meters (like the Kenwood TR- 2600A, IC-28A, IC228H, etc.) I grafted their S-meter circuitry to my scanners. ***** Vary Parameters and Measure the Impact ***** Modification: Speed up the R-7000 scan rate. Motivation: dissatisfied with stock performance. I studied the radio schematic, found the components that determined scan rate, and substituted various values of resistance, measuring the affect of each change. ***** Apply Simple Theory ***** Modification: COR light for the PRO-2004. Motivation: make scanner easier to use in a roomful of other active radios. Having studied the schematics of many scanners, I was familiar with FM receiver and scanner circuitry. I used service manual and found the proper point in the circuit where a logic level signal was produced depending on whether a signal was absent or present. Again, the PRO-2004 used a popular IF/squelch chip. I used the simplest transistor switching principles to design a COR light circuit. ***** Fashion a Test Harness ***** Marvin Moss used an interesting approach to explore his portable scanner. He wired the diodes in the diode matrix of his Radio Shack PRO-34 to separate DIP switches so he could experiment with switching in and out different combinations of diodes. ***** All That Glitters is Not Gold ***** I always find other peoples' modifications very interesting, although not all are meritorious. For instance, avoid changing the crystal or RC time constant circuitry used as a clock for the microprocessor controller in your receiver. The controller performs many functions, so this alteration can produce undesirable side effects which outweigh any small increase in scan rate. The following file was written for informational purposes only! The author does not warrent the accuracy nor does he condone any form of illegal activity in respect to this file. Cellular Secrets by BOOTLEG (C) 1992 Let me start out by saying this file won't be in the best of ordered content as I'll be skipping around a little quoting data from various manuals as it pops into my mind. It will however, allow anyone that reads it thoroughly and obtains the manuals & equipment specified within, to do virtually anything regarding Cellular! ESN= Electronic Serial Number (every cellular has one in Rom) MIN= The cellulars phone # " " " " " " Reverse Channel= The channel the Cellular phone broadcasts on. Foward Channel = The channel the Cell Site broadcasts on. Remember these key terms as they are the secret to cellulars. Most cellulars have the ESN/MIN located in a Eprom/EEprom located somewhere on the circuit board.(older cellulars may not have a ESN) These are usually 27c256 or 27c512 eproms which can be burned or changed by standard eprom burners. They also contain the cellulars programming which can be changed. When you power up a cellular, it sends its ESN/MIN to the cell site on the reverse channel. The cell site then returns the MIN with an OK signal if their database verifies the ESN/MIN. Some newer cell site software will verify the ESN/MIN with the C.O. before allowing the call. If everything is ok, the cellular will then be able to place a call. (The REVERSE channels ESN/MIN & related data can be captured by equipment listed at the end of this file.) It seems like some scoundrels have captured other peoples ESN/MIN and burned new Eproms enabling another cellular phone to act as the original. Rumor has it that hackers have gone as far as actually changing the eproms software whereby the program jumps past the ESN/MIN address in the eprom to an address location that can be programmed into memory via the handset! Yet another rumor has it that some even go as far as re-programming the software to capture other cellulars ESN/MIN and automatically store the data in memory. This naturally allows someone to place fraudulent calls while frequently changing ESN/MINs to avoid all forms of detection. The cell sites usually use frequencies on the Non-wireline A band as forward channels. The reverse channels are usually 45 mhz below the forward channels. These REVERSE channels are the ones scanned by "UNSAVORY DOGS" that steal others ESN/MINs for fraudulent use. (hehe) Note that one hacker seems to think one can use a Z80 Uncompiler/Compiler on the eproms software of some cellulars. (The Shame of it all!) Other cellulars use different but common microprocessors of which compilers/de compilers are easily available. Ok-now that you have the theory behind cellular phreaking, I'll continue on to some backround & tech stuff you'll need. ****************************************************************** Cellular Overview A cell system divides the service area into small, low power areas called cells. A cell system has a continuous patern of these cells, each having a 1 to 40 mile radius (usually 5-10 miles). Within each cell is a base station which contain several transcievers and control equipment for the channels assigned to that cell. These are all connected to a MTSO which is in turn connected to a CO (central Office) switch. Each cell operates on an assigned channel and may have numerous paging and voice channels assigned to it. The cellular radio freqs have been divided by the FCC into 2 equal bands to allow 2 different systems to co-exist and compete in the same area. Originally there were 666 channels,but that was expanded to 832 in 1988, and with NAMPS to 2412 in 1991. Band A- Non Wireline Band B- Wireline Control channels=21 = 313-333 21= 334-354 Voice channels=001-312 355-666 (395 AMPS/1185 NAMPS) (395 AMPS/1185 NAMPS) Control channels are used to send and receive only digital data between the cellular phone & the cell base station. The 21 control channels in each band may be dedicated to two different applications: access and paging channels. The data on the Foward control channels provides such info as the system identification number and range of channels to scan to find the access and paging channels. Access channels are used to respond to a page or to originate a call. The system and the cell phone will use access channels where 2-way data transfer occurs to determine the initial voice channel. Paging channels if used are the holding place for an idle cell phone. When the call is received at the central controller for a cellular phone, the paging signalling will start on a paging channel. In many systems, both control channel functions will be served by the same access channel for a particular cell. Multiplepaging channels are only used in high density areas. NAM = Number assignment Module: This is a memory component (usually an Eprom/EEprom) that contains a cell phones ESN/MIN/SCM, lock code,etc. Some phones can be re-programmed via the handset so one can change their MIN several times. (usually the phones software locks it up after 3 to 20 MIN changes) This feature was used limitedly to deceive cell sites when roaming. Newer cell site software is quickly making this trick obsolete. ( the problem being is that one cannot change the ESN via NAM handset programming unless one re-writes the Eprom Software. HeHe) MTSO= Mobile Telephone Switching Office One must know, there is no distributed intelligence in the first generation of cellular systems! AT these cellular base stations there is little or no monitering equipment of any kind. There are a mix of 3 watt, 1.2 watt and 600 milliwatt cellular phones in use today. (keep this in mind as the power of a cellular phone is stored in ROM & transmitted along with the ESN/MIN and the coding must be correct.) 3 watt = mobiles, 1.6 watt=transportables, 600 milliwatt=portables IS-41 = The newest standard that will let cell switches from different vendors hand-off and deliver calls and transfer subscriber data profiles. (newest version is REVISION B) This document contains tons of usefull info & can be found at public libraries, etc. IS-41 rev b, is published by AT&T, although the original rev 0 published in 1987 or rev A published in 1990 may come in handy when dealing with older/smaller MTSOs that haven't upgraded yet. MTSOs typically use fiber optic links to cell sites or a 18 ghz microwave link. A cell site in turn then probably uses a 38 ghz microwave link to a Microcell Transmitter. TDMA and CDMA are both vying to become the industry standard. SS7 = As soon as a user turns on a cell phone the MIN/ESN for that phone will be carried as an SS7 network message to a database, known as the home location register(HLR),within the user's home carrier system. The HLR will provide information for validation as well as customer profile info for advanced features as voice mail. That info will then be be relayed to a second database, the visitor location register, maintained by the carrier that is hosting the roaming call. They hope to reduce fraud by checking the ESN with real time validation on a per call basis. The current system is unable to detect fraud until after a caller has made his first call. (This system simply uses a customers calling profile to detect an unusual calling pattern.) Those changing ESN/MINs often cannot be detected! Cell relay uses fixed length packets- 48 bytes for the payload and 5 bytes for the header. Two existing cell relay standards are IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) and ATM. They differ only in content of the header. Each cellular has 2 channels associated with it, the transmit (REVERSE) and the receive (FOWARD). REVERSE freqs= 824-848 mhz Forward freqs= 869-894 mhz Conventional dispatch=806-809.7 mhz and 851-854.75 mhz Trunked dispatch= 809.75-824 mhz and 854.75-869 mhz General reserve=848-851 mhz and 894-902 mhz and 928-947 mhz channel spacing = 30 mhz AMPS or 10 mhz NAMPS ************************************************************* Reverse Channel Info Voice channels are used primarily for conversation, with signaling used with quick data bursts or tones to handle cell to cell handoffs, output power control of the cellular radio-phone and special control features.Foward data from the cell site and REVERSE data from the cell phone is sent using frequency shift keying. The data is formatted into groups of words with a distinct binary preamble that allows the receiver to syncronize to the incomming data. With AMPS, various tones are used. With NAMPS the data and tones have been replaced by sub-audible digital equivalents that ride under the audio. (see EIA - 553 for AMPS or Motorolas NAMPS Air interface specification for NAMPS) Signaling Tone(ST) and Digital ST(DST) In AMPS, the signalling tone is a 10 khz signal used by the mobile on the REVERSE channel (REVC) to signal activities or to acknowledge commands from the cell site, including handoffs,alert orders, call terminations and switch-hook operation. Various burst lengths are used on different ST activities. On NAMPS channels ST is replaced by a digital equivalent called Digital ST (DST) which is the compliment of the assigned DSAT. The 10 khz signal is sent for 50 milliseconds. SAT (Supervisory Audio Tone) and DSAT (Digital SAT) The supervisory audio tone (SAT) is one of 3 frequencies: SAT 0 = 5970 hz SAT 1 = 6000 hz ( plus or minus 2khz on these SAT 2 = 6030 hz 3 freqs.) These are used in AMPS signaling. On NAMPS channels SAT is replaced by one of 7 subaudible digital equivalents or vectors called DSAT. SAT or DSAT is generated by the cell site, checked for frequency or accuracy by the cell phone, then transponded back to the cell site on the REVERSE voice channel (REVC). The cellular telephone uses (D)SAT to verify that it is tuned to the correct channel after a new voice channel assignment. When the CO signals the mobile regarding the new voice channel, it also tells the mobile of the SAT freq of the DSAT vector to expect on the new channel. The returned (D)SAT is used at the cell site to verify the presence of the telephones signal on the designated frequency. DSAT = +/- 700 hz deviation Data = Transmitted at 10 kbits/sec. Used for sending System Orders & mobile identification. In cellular the data is transmitted as Frequency Key Shifting, where the carrier is shifted high 8 khz in AMPS(700 hz in NAMPS) to represent a logic high (or 1), and the carrier is shifted low 8 khz in AMPS(700 hz in NAMPS) to represent a logic low (or 0). Control channels carry data only. Voice channels carry data and other signals listed here. Audio = includes all microphone audio & DTMF while in a call (maximum =/- 12 khz deviation AMPS,=/- 5 khz dev NAMPS). DTMF uses 2 tones (one high one low)from a selection of seven tones (4 low,3 high tones) to indicate digits being dialed. In AMPS signalling, audio & ST are accompanied by SAT. ******************************************************************* Placing a call from a Cellular Phone When first turned on, the cellular scans through the FOCCs and measure the strengt of each signal. It will then tune to the strongest & attempt to decode the overhead control message. From the overhead the phone can determine if it is in its home system and range of channels to scan for paging and access. If paging channels are used, the phone next scans each paging channelin the specified range & tunes to the strongest one. Its on that channel the phone will continuously receive overhead message info plus paging messages. At this point the phone idles, continuously updating the overhead message info in its memory and monitoring the paging messages for its telephone number. When the cellular phone user originates the call, the phone rescans the access channels to assure that its tuned to the strongest one. It then transmits at 10kbits per sec on the control channel to notify the switch of its MIN (mobile identification number (phone number)), its ESN and the number it wants to reach. The switch verifies the incomming data and assigns a voice channel and a SAT (or DSAT forNAMPS) to the telephone. The phone tunes to the assigned voice channel and verifies the presence of the proper foward SAT frequency or (DSAT message. If SAT (DSAT) is correct the phone transponds SAT(DSAT) back to the cell site and unmutes the forward audio. The cell site detects reverse SAT(DSAT) from the cellular & unmutes reverse audio. At this point the user can hear the other end ring. SAT(DSAT is sent and received more or less continuously by both the base station & the phone but SAT(DSAT) is not sent during data transmissions and the phone does not transpond SAT continously during VOX operation. DSAT is suspended during the transmission of DST. SAT 7 signalling tones are only used on AMPS voice channels & the signalling tone is only transmitted by the cellular phone. Note that the number called, the ESN, MIN etc. are transmitted 4 or 5 times & it only takes 260 milliseconds for all this data exchange. Call termination = 10 khz tone burst for 1.8 seconds. **************************************************************** Formulae Freq calc for channels 1-799 = REVERSE = 825mhz + (Ch.# X .03 mhz) Forward = 870mhz + (Ch.# X .03 mhz) Freq calc for channels 991-1023 REV = 825mhz - (.03 mhz X(1023-Ch#)) For = 870mhz - " " " " Duplex spacing = 45 mhz *********************************************************************** Station Class Mark (SCM) SCM 666 or 832 Ch. VOX Max Power in Watts 00 666 n 3 01 666 n 1.2 02 666 n .6 03 04 666 y 3 05 666 y 1.2 06 666 y .6 07 08 832 n 3 09 832 n 1.2 10 832 n .6 11 12 832 y 3 13 832 y 1.2 14 832 y .6 15 If the SCM is not set properly during programming the EProm, it might have adverse effects on the operation of the phone. It may also flag security software to a "Tumbled Phone". Smart cell phreaks will only use ESN/MINs that have the same SCM as their own phone they plan on TUMBLING. ********************************************************************* Cellular phone channel construction =============================================================================== Here is a method of determining which frequencies are used in a cellular system, and which ones are in what cells. If the system uses OMNICELLS, as most do, you can readily find all the channels in a cell if you know just one of them, using tables constructed with the instructions below. Cellular frequencies are assigned by channel number, and for all channel numbers, in both wireline and non-wireline systems, the formula is: Transmit Frequency = (channel number x .030 MHz) + 870 MHz Receive Frequency = (channel number x .030 Mhz) + 825 Mhz "Band A" (one of the two blocks) uses channels 1 - 333. To construct a table showing frequency by cells, use channel 333 as the top left corner of a table. The next entry to the right of channel 333 is 332, the next is 331, etc., down to channel 313. Enter channel 312 underneath 333, 311 under 332, etc. Each channel across the top row is the first channel in each CELL of the system; each channel DOWN from the column from the the first channel is the next frequency assigned to that cell. You may have noted that each channel down is 21 channels lower in number. Usually the data channel used is the highest numbered channel in a cell. "Band B" uses channels from 334 to 666. Construct your table in a similar way, with channel 334 in the upper left corner, 335 the next entry to the right. The data channel should be the lowest numbered channel in each cell this time. Cellular Phone Band A (Channel 1 is Data) Cell # 1 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (333) Tx 879.990 Rx 834.990 Channel 2 (312) Tx 879.360 Rx 834.360 Channel 3 (291) Tx 878.730 Rx 833.730 Channel 4 (270) Tx 878.100 Rx 833.100 Channel 5 (249) Tx 877.470 Rx 832.470 Channel 6 (228) Tx 876.840 Rx 831.840 Channel 7 (207) Tx 876.210 Rx 831.210 Channel 8 (186) Tx 875.580 Rx 830.580 Channel 9 (165) Tx 874.950 Rx 829.950 Channel 10 (144) Tx 874.320 Rx 829.320 Channel 11 (123) Tx 873.690 Rx 828.690 Channel 12 (102) Tx 873.060 Rx 828.060 Channel 13 (81) Tx 872.430 Rx 827.430 Channel 14 (60) Tx 871.800 Rx 826.800 Channel 15 (39) Tx 871.170 Rx 826.170 Channel 16 (18) Tx 870.540 Rx 825.540 Cell # 2 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (332) Tx 879.960 Rx 834.960 Channel 2 (311) Tx 879.330 Rx 834.330 Channel 3 (290) Tx 878.700 Rx 833.700 Channel 4 (269) Tx 878.070 Rx 833.070 Channel 5 (248) Tx 877.440 Rx 832.440 Channel 6 (227) Tx 876.810 Rx 831.810 Channel 7 (206) Tx 876.180 Rx 831.180 Channel 8 (185) Tx 875.550 Rx 830.550 Channel 9 (164) Tx 874.920 Rx 829.920 Channel 10 (143) Tx 874.290 Rx 829.290 Channel 11 (122) Tx 873.660 Rx 828.660 Channel 12 (101) Tx 873.030 Rx 828.030 Channel 13 (80) Tx 872.400 Rx 827.400 Channel 14 (59) Tx 871.770 Rx 826.770 Channel 15 (38) Tx 871.140 Rx 826.140 Channel 16 (17) Tx 870.510 Rx 825.510 Cell # 3 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (331) Tx 879.930 Rx 834.930 Channel 2 (310) Tx 879.300 Rx 834.300 Channel 3 (289) Tx 878.670 Rx 833.670 Channel 4 (268) Tx 878.040 Rx 833.040 Channel 5 (247) Tx 877.410 Rx 832.410 Channel 6 (226) Tx 876.780 Rx 831.780 Channel 7 (205) Tx 876.150 Rx 831.150 Channel 8 (184) Tx 875.520 Rx 830.520 Channel 9 (163) Tx 874.890 Rx 829.890 Channel 10 (142) Tx 874.260 Rx 829.260 Channel 11 (121) Tx 873.630 Rx 828.630 Channel 12 (100) Tx 873.000 Rx 828.000 Channel 13 (79) Tx 872.370 Rx 827.370 Channel 14 (58) Tx 871.740 Rx 826.740 Channel 15 (37) Tx 871.110 Rx 826.110 Channel 16 (16) Tx 870.480 Rx 825.480 Cell # 4 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (330) Tx 879.900 Rx 834.900 Channel 2 (309) Tx 879.270 Rx 834.270 Channel 3 (288) Tx 878.640 Rx 833.640 Channel 4 (267) Tx 878.010 Rx 833.010 Channel 5 (246) Tx 877.380 Rx 832.380 Channel 6 (225) Tx 876.750 Rx 831.750 Channel 7 (204) Tx 876.120 Rx 831.120 Channel 8 (183) Tx 875.490 Rx 830.490 Channel 9 (162) Tx 874.860 Rx 829.860 Channel 10 (141) Tx 874.230 Rx 829.230 Channel 11 (120) Tx 873.600 Rx 828.600 Channel 12 (99) Tx 872.970 Rx 827.970 Channel 13 (78) Tx 872.340 Rx 827.340 Channel 14 (57) Tx 871.710 Rx 826.710 Channel 15 (36) Tx 871.080 Rx 826.080 Channel 16 (15) Tx 870.450 Rx 825.450 Cell # 5 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (329) Tx 879.870 Rx 834.870 Channel 2 (308) Tx 879.240 Rx 834.240 Channel 3 (287) Tx 878.610 Rx 833.610 Channel 4 (266) Tx 877.980 Rx 832.980 Channel 5 (245) Tx 877.350 Rx 832.350 Channel 6 (224) Tx 876.720 Rx 831.720 Channel 7 (203) Tx 876.090 Rx 831.090 Channel 8 (182) Tx 875.460 Rx 830.460 Channel 9 (161) Tx 874.830 Rx 829.830 Channel 10 (140) Tx 874.200 Rx 829.200 Channel 11 (119) Tx 873.570 Rx 828.570 Channel 12 (98) Tx 872.940 Rx 827.940 Channel 13 (77) Tx 872.310 Rx 827.310 Channel 14 (56) Tx 871.680 Rx 826.680 Channel 15 (35) Tx 871.050 Rx 826.050 Channel 16 (14) Tx 870.420 Rx 825.420 Cell # 6 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (328) Tx 879.840 Rx 834.840 Channel 2 (307) Tx 879.210 Rx 834.210 Channel 3 (286) Tx 878.580 Rx 833.580 Channel 4 (265) Tx 877.950 Rx 832.950 Channel 5 (244) Tx 877.320 Rx 832.320 Channel 6 (223) Tx 876.690 Rx 831.690 Channel 7 (202) Tx 876.060 Rx 831.060 Channel 8 (181) Tx 875.430 Rx 830.430 Channel 9 (160) Tx 874.800 Rx 829.800 Channel 10 (139) Tx 874.170 Rx 829.170 Channel 11 (118) Tx 873.540 Rx 828.540 Channel 12 (97) Tx 872.910 Rx 827.910 Channel 13 (76) Tx 872.280 Rx 827.280 Channel 14 (55) Tx 871.650 Rx 826.650 Channel 15 (34) Tx 871.020 Rx 826.020 Channel 16 (13) Tx 870.390 Rx 825.390 Cell # 7 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (327) Tx 879.810 Rx 834.810 Channel 2 (306) Tx 879.180 Rx 834.180 Channel 3 (285) Tx 878.550 Rx 833.550 Channel 4 (264) Tx 877.920 Rx 832.920 Channel 5 (243) Tx 877.290 Rx 832.290 Channel 6 (222) Tx 876.660 Rx 831.660 Channel 7 (201) Tx 876.030 Rx 831.030 Channel 8 (180) Tx 875.400 Rx 830.400 Channel 9 (159) Tx 874.770 Rx 829.770 Channel 10 (138) Tx 874.140 Rx 829.140 Channel 11 (117) Tx 873.510 Rx 828.510 Channel 12 (96) Tx 872.880 Rx 827.880 Channel 13 (75) Tx 872.250 Rx 827.250 Channel 14 (54) Tx 871.620 Rx 826.620 Channel 15 (33) Tx 870.990 Rx 825.990 Channel 16 (12) Tx 870.360 Rx 825.360 Cell # 8 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (326) Tx 879.780 Rx 834.780 Channel 2 (305) Tx 879.150 Rx 834.150 Channel 3 (284) Tx 878.520 Rx 833.520 Channel 4 (263) Tx 877.890 Rx 832.890 Channel 5 (242) Tx 877.260 Rx 832.260 Channel 6 (221) Tx 876.630 Rx 831.630 Channel 7 (200) Tx 876.000 Rx 831.000 Channel 8 (179) Tx 875.370 Rx 830.370 Channel 9 (158) Tx 874.740 Rx 829.740 Channel 10 (137) Tx 874.110 Rx 829.110 Channel 11 (116) Tx 873.480 Rx 828.480 Channel 12 (95) Tx 872.850 Rx 827.850 Channel 13 (74) Tx 872.220 Rx 827.220 Channel 14 (53) Tx 871.590 Rx 826.590 Channel 15 (32) Tx 870.960 Rx 825.960 Channel 16 (11) Tx 870.330 Rx 825.330 Cell # 9 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (325) Tx 879.750 Rx 834.750 Channel 2 (304) Tx 879.120 Rx 834.120 Channel 3 (283) Tx 878.490 Rx 833.490 Channel 4 (262) Tx 877.860 Rx 832.860 Channel 5 (241) Tx 877.230 Rx 832.230 Channel 6 (220) Tx 876.600 Rx 831.600 Channel 7 (199) Tx 875.970 Rx 830.970 Channel 8 (178) Tx 875.340 Rx 830.340 Channel 9 (157) Tx 874.710 Rx 829.710 Channel 10 (136) Tx 874.080 Rx 829.080 Channel 11 (115) Tx 873.450 Rx 828.450 Channel 12 (94) Tx 872.820 Rx 827.820 Channel 13 (73) Tx 872.190 Rx 827.190 Channel 14 (52) Tx 871.560 Rx 826.560 Channel 15 (31) Tx 870.930 Rx 825.930 Channel 16 (10) Tx 870.300 Rx 825.300 Cell # 10 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (324) Tx 879.720 Rx 834.720 Channel 2 (303) Tx 879.090 Rx 834.090 Channel 3 (282) Tx 878.460 Rx 833.460 Channel 4 (261) Tx 877.830 Rx 832.830 Channel 5 (240) Tx 877.200 Rx 832.200 Channel 6 (219) Tx 876.570 Rx 831.570 Channel 7 (198) Tx 875.940 Rx 830.940 Channel 8 (177) Tx 875.310 Rx 830.310 Channel 9 (156) Tx 874.680 Rx 829.680 Channel 10 (135) Tx 874.050 Rx 829.050 Channel 11 (114) Tx 873.420 Rx 828.420 Channel 12 (93) Tx 872.790 Rx 827.790 Channel 13 (72) Tx 872.160 Rx 827.160 Channel 14 (51) Tx 871.530 Rx 826.530 Channel 15 (30) Tx 870.900 Rx 825.900 Channel 16 (9) Tx 870.270 Rx 825.270 Cell # 11 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (323) Tx 879.690 Rx 834.690 Channel 2 (302) Tx 879.060 Rx 834.060 Channel 3 (281) Tx 878.430 Rx 833.430 Channel 4 (260) Tx 877.800 Rx 832.800 Channel 5 (239) Tx 877.170 Rx 832.170 Channel 6 (218) Tx 876.540 Rx 831.540 Channel 7 (197) Tx 875.910 Rx 830.910 Channel 8 (176) Tx 875.280 Rx 830.280 Channel 9 (155) Tx 874.650 Rx 829.650 Channel 10 (134) Tx 874.020 Rx 829.020 Channel 11 (113) Tx 873.390 Rx 828.390 Channel 12 (92) Tx 872.760 Rx 827.760 Channel 13 (71) Tx 872.130 Rx 827.130 Channel 14 (50) Tx 871.500 Rx 826.500 Channel 15 (29) Tx 870.870 Rx 825.870 Channel 16 (8) Tx 870.240 Rx 825.240 Cell # 12 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (322) Tx 879.660 Rx 834.660 Channel 2 (301) Tx 879.030 Rx 834.030 Channel 3 (280) Tx 878.400 Rx 833.400 Channel 4 (259) Tx 877.770 Rx 832.770 Channel 5 (238) Tx 877.140 Rx 832.140 Channel 6 (217) Tx 876.510 Rx 831.510 Channel 7 (196) Tx 875.880 Rx 830.880 Channel 8 (175) Tx 875.250 Rx 830.250 Channel 9 (154) Tx 874.620 Rx 829.620 Channel 10 (133) Tx 873.990 Rx 828.990 Channel 11 (112) Tx 873.360 Rx 828.360 Channel 12 (91) Tx 872.730 Rx 827.730 Channel 13 (70) Tx 872.100 Rx 827.100 Channel 14 (49) Tx 871.470 Rx 826.470 Channel 15 (28) Tx 870.840 Rx 825.840 Channel 16 (7) Tx 870.210 Rx 825.210 Cell # 13 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (321) Tx 879.630 Rx 834.630 Channel 2 (300) Tx 879.000 Rx 834.000 Channel 3 (279) Tx 878.370 Rx 833.370 Channel 4 (258) Tx 877.740 Rx 832.740 Channel 5 (237) Tx 877.110 Rx 832.110 Channel 6 (216) Tx 876.480 Rx 831.480 Channel 7 (195) Tx 875.850 Rx 830.850 Channel 8 (174) Tx 875.220 Rx 830.220 Channel 9 (153) Tx 874.590 Rx 829.590 Channel 10 (132) Tx 873.960 Rx 828.960 Channel 11 (111) Tx 873.330 Rx 828.330 Channel 12 (90) Tx 872.700 Rx 827.700 Channel 13 (69) Tx 872.070 Rx 827.070 Channel 14 (48) Tx 871.440 Rx 826.440 Channel 15 (27) Tx 870.810 Rx 825.810 Channel 16 (6) Tx 870.180 Rx 825.180 Cell # 14 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (320) Tx 879.600 Rx 834.600 Channel 2 (299) Tx 878.970 Rx 833.970 Channel 3 (278) Tx 878.340 Rx 833.340 Channel 4 (257) Tx 877.710 Rx 832.710 Channel 5 (236) Tx 877.080 Rx 832.080 Channel 6 (215) Tx 876.450 Rx 831.450 Channel 7 (194) Tx 875.820 Rx 830.820 Channel 8 (173) Tx 875.190 Rx 830.190 Channel 9 (152) Tx 874.560 Rx 829.560 Channel 10 (131) Tx 873.930 Rx 828.930 Channel 11 (110) Tx 873.300 Rx 828.300 Channel 12 (89) Tx 872.670 Rx 827.670 Channel 13 (68) Tx 872.040 Rx 827.040 Channel 14 (47) Tx 871.410 Rx 826.410 Channel 15 (26) Tx 870.780 Rx 825.780 Channel 16 (5) Tx 870.150 Rx 825.150 Cell # 15 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (319) Tx 879.570 Rx 834.570 Channel 2 (298) Tx 878.940 Rx 833.940 Channel 3 (277) Tx 878.310 Rx 833.310 Channel 4 (256) Tx 877.680 Rx 832.680 Channel 5 (235) Tx 877.050 Rx 832.050 Channel 6 (214) Tx 876.420 Rx 831.420 Channel 7 (193) Tx 875.790 Rx 830.790 Channel 8 (172) Tx 875.160 Rx 830.160 Channel 9 (151) Tx 874.530 Rx 829.530 Channel 10 (130) Tx 873.900 Rx 828.900 Channel 11 (109) Tx 873.270 Rx 828.270 Channel 12 (88) Tx 872.640 Rx 827.640 Channel 13 (67) Tx 872.010 Rx 827.010 Channel 14 (46) Tx 871.380 Rx 826.380 Channel 15 (25) Tx 870.750 Rx 825.750 Channel 16 (4) Tx 870.120 Rx 825.120 Cell # 16 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (318) Tx 879.540 Rx 834.540 Channel 2 (297) Tx 878.910 Rx 833.910 Channel 3 (276) Tx 878.280 Rx 833.280 Channel 4 (255) Tx 877.650 Rx 832.650 Channel 5 (234) Tx 877.020 Rx 832.020 Channel 6 (213) Tx 876.390 Rx 831.390 Channel 7 (192) Tx 875.760 Rx 830.760 Channel 8 (171) Tx 875.130 Rx 830.130 Channel 9 (150) Tx 874.500 Rx 829.500 Channel 10 (129) Tx 873.870 Rx 828.870 Channel 11 (108) Tx 873.240 Rx 828.240 Channel 12 (87) Tx 872.610 Rx 827.610 Channel 13 (66) Tx 871.980 Rx 826.980 Channel 14 (45) Tx 871.350 Rx 826.350 Channel 15 (24) Tx 870.720 Rx 825.720 Channel 16 (3) Tx 870.090 Rx 825.090 Cell # 17 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (317) Tx 879.510 Rx 834.510 Channel 2 (296) Tx 878.880 Rx 833.880 Channel 3 (275) Tx 878.250 Rx 833.250 Channel 4 (254) Tx 877.620 Rx 832.620 Channel 5 (233) Tx 876.990 Rx 831.990 Channel 6 (212) Tx 876.360 Rx 831.360 Channel 7 (191) Tx 875.730 Rx 830.730 Channel 8 (170) Tx 875.100 Rx 830.100 Channel 9 (149) Tx 874.470 Rx 829.470 Channel 10 (128) Tx 873.840 Rx 828.840 Channel 11 (107) Tx 873.210 Rx 828.210 Channel 12 (86) Tx 872.580 Rx 827.580 Channel 13 (65) Tx 871.950 Rx 826.950 Channel 14 (44) Tx 871.320 Rx 826.320 Channel 15 (23) Tx 870.690 Rx 825.690 Channel 16 (2) Tx 870.060 Rx 825.060 Cell # 18 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (316) Tx 879.480 Rx 834.480 Channel 2 (295) Tx 878.850 Rx 833.850 Channel 3 (274) Tx 878.220 Rx 833.220 Channel 4 (253) Tx 877.590 Rx 832.590 Channel 5 (232) Tx 876.960 Rx 831.960 Channel 6 (211) Tx 876.330 Rx 831.330 Channel 7 (190) Tx 875.700 Rx 830.700 Channel 8 (169) Tx 875.070 Rx 830.070 Channel 9 (148) Tx 874.440 Rx 829.440 Channel 10 (127) Tx 873.810 Rx 828.810 Channel 11 (106) Tx 873.180 Rx 828.180 Channel 12 (85) Tx 872.550 Rx 827.550 Channel 13 (64) Tx 871.920 Rx 826.920 Channel 14 (43) Tx 871.290 Rx 826.290 Channel 15 (22) Tx 870.660 Rx 825.660 Channel 16 (1) Tx 870.030 Rx 825.030 Cell # 19 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (315) Tx 879.450 Rx 834.450 Channel 2 (294) Tx 878.820 Rx 833.820 Channel 3 (273) Tx 878.190 Rx 833.190 Channel 4 (252) Tx 877.560 Rx 832.560 Channel 5 (231) Tx 876.930 Rx 831.930 Channel 6 (210) Tx 876.300 Rx 831.300 Channel 7 (189) Tx 875.670 Rx 830.670 Channel 8 (168) Tx 875.040 Rx 830.040 Channel 9 (147) Tx 874.410 Rx 829.410 Channel 10 (126) Tx 873.780 Rx 828.780 Channel 11 (105) Tx 873.150 Rx 828.150 Channel 12 (84) Tx 872.520 Rx 827.520 Channel 13 (63) Tx 871.890 Rx 826.890 Channel 14 (42) Tx 871.260 Rx 826.260 Channel 15 (21) Tx 870.630 Rx 825.630 Cell # 20 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (314) Tx 879.420 Rx 834.420 Channel 2 (293) Tx 878.790 Rx 833.790 Channel 3 (272) Tx 878.160 Rx 833.160 Channel 4 (251) Tx 877.530 Rx 832.530 Channel 5 (230) Tx 876.900 Rx 831.900 Channel 6 (209) Tx 876.270 Rx 831.270 Channel 7 (188) Tx 875.640 Rx 830.640 Channel 8 (167) Tx 875.010 Rx 830.010 Channel 9 (146) Tx 874.380 Rx 829.380 Channel 10 (125) Tx 873.750 Rx 828.750 Channel 11 (104) Tx 873.120 Rx 828.120 Channel 12 (83) Tx 872.490 Rx 827.490 Channel 13 (62) Tx 871.860 Rx 826.860 Channel 14 (41) Tx 871.230 Rx 826.230 Channel 15 (20) Tx 870.600 Rx 825.600 Cell # 21 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (313) Tx 879.390 Rx 834.390 Channel 2 (292) Tx 878.760 Rx 833.760 Channel 3 (271) Tx 878.130 Rx 833.130 Channel 4 (250) Tx 877.500 Rx 832.500 Channel 5 (229) Tx 876.870 Rx 831.870 Channel 6 (208) Tx 876.240 Rx 831.240 Channel 7 (187) Tx 875.610 Rx 830.610 Channel 8 (166) Tx 874.980 Rx 829.980 Channel 9 (145) Tx 874.350 Rx 829.350 Channel 10 (124) Tx 873.720 Rx 828.720 Channel 11 (103) Tx 873.090 Rx 828.090 Channel 12 (82) Tx 872.460 Rx 827.460 Channel 13 (61) Tx 871.830 Rx 826.830 Channel 14 (40) Tx 871.200 Rx 826.200 Channel 15 (19) Tx 870.570 Rx 825.570 ************************************************** Cellular Phone Band B (Channel 1 is Data) Cell # 1 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (334) Tx 880.020 Rx 835.020 Channel 2 (355) Tx 880.650 Rx 835.650 Channel 3 (376) Tx 881.280 Rx 836.280 Channel 4 (397) Tx 881.910 Rx 836.910 Channel 5 (418) Tx 882.540 Rx 837.540 Channel 6 (439) Tx 883.170 Rx 838.170 Channel 7 (460) Tx 883.800 Rx 838.800 Channel 8 (481) Tx 884.430 Rx 839.430 Channel 9 (502) Tx 885.060 Rx 840.060 Channel 10 (523) Tx 885.690 Rx 840.690 Channel 11 (544) Tx 886.320 Rx 841.320 Channel 12 (565) Tx 886.950 Rx 841.950 Channel 13 (586) Tx 887.580 Rx 842.580 Channel 14 (607) Tx 888.210 Rx 843.210 Channel 15 (628) Tx 888.840 Rx 843.840 Channel 16 (649) Tx 889.470 Rx 844.470 Cell # 2 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (335) Tx 880.050 Rx 835.050 Channel 2 (356) Tx 880.680 Rx 835.680 Channel 3 (377) Tx 881.310 Rx 836.310 Channel 4 (398) Tx 881.940 Rx 836.940 Channel 5 (419) Tx 882.570 Rx 837.570 Channel 6 (440) Tx 883.200 Rx 838.200 Channel 7 (461) Tx 883.830 Rx 838.830 Channel 8 (482) Tx 884.460 Rx 839.460 Channel 9 (503) Tx 885.090 Rx 840.090 Channel 10 (524) Tx 885.720 Rx 840.720 Channel 11 (545) Tx 886.350 Rx 841.350 Channel 12 (566) Tx 886.980 Rx 841.980 Channel 13 (587) Tx 887.610 Rx 842.610 Channel 14 (608) Tx 888.240 Rx 843.240 Channel 15 (629) Tx 888.870 Rx 843.870 Channel 16 (650) Tx 889.500 Rx 844.500 Cell # 3 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (336) Tx 880.080 Rx 835.080 Channel 2 (357) Tx 880.710 Rx 835.710 Channel 3 (378) Tx 881.340 Rx 836.340 Channel 4 (399) Tx 881.970 Rx 836.970 Channel 5 (420) Tx 882.600 Rx 837.600 Channel 6 (441) Tx 883.230 Rx 838.230 Channel 7 (462) Tx 883.860 Rx 838.860 Channel 8 (483) Tx 884.490 Rx 839.490 Channel 9 (504) Tx 885.120 Rx 840.120 Channel 10 (525) Tx 885.750 Rx 840.750 Channel 11 (546) Tx 886.380 Rx 841.380 Channel 12 (567) Tx 887.010 Rx 842.010 Channel 13 (588) Tx 887.640 Rx 842.640 Channel 14 (609) Tx 888.270 Rx 843.270 Channel 15 (630) Tx 888.900 Rx 843.900 Channel 16 (651) Tx 889.530 Rx 844.530 Cell # 4 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (337) Tx 880.110 Rx 835.110 Channel 2 (358) Tx 880.740 Rx 835.740 Channel 3 (379) Tx 881.370 Rx 836.370 Channel 4 (400) Tx 882.000 Rx 837.000 Channel 5 (421) Tx 882.630 Rx 837.630 Channel 6 (442) Tx 883.260 Rx 838.260 Channel 7 (463) Tx 883.890 Rx 838.890 Channel 8 (484) Tx 884.520 Rx 839.520 Channel 9 (505) Tx 885.150 Rx 840.150 Channel 10 (526) Tx 885.780 Rx 840.780 Channel 11 (547) Tx 886.410 Rx 841.410 Channel 12 (568) Tx 887.040 Rx 842.040 Channel 13 (589) Tx 887.670 Rx 842.670 Channel 14 (610) Tx 888.300 Rx 843.300 Channel 15 (631) Tx 888.930 Rx 843.930 Channel 16 (652) Tx 889.560 Rx 844.560 Cell # 5 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (338) Tx 880.140 Rx 835.140 Channel 2 (359) Tx 880.770 Rx 835.770 Channel 3 (380) Tx 881.400 Rx 836.400 Channel 4 (401) Tx 882.030 Rx 837.030 Channel 5 (422) Tx 882.660 Rx 837.660 Channel 6 (443) Tx 883.290 Rx 838.290 Channel 7 (464) Tx 883.920 Rx 838.920 Channel 8 (485) Tx 884.550 Rx 839.550 Channel 9 (506) Tx 885.180 Rx 840.180 Channel 10 (527) Tx 885.810 Rx 840.810 Channel 11 (548) Tx 886.440 Rx 841.440 Channel 12 (569) Tx 887.070 Rx 842.070 Channel 13 (590) Tx 887.700 Rx 842.700 Channel 14 (611) Tx 888.330 Rx 843.330 Channel 15 (632) Tx 888.960 Rx 843.960 Channel 16 (653) Tx 889.590 Rx 844.590 Cell # 6 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (339) Tx 880.170 Rx 835.170 Channel 2 (360) Tx 880.800 Rx 835.800 Channel 3 (381) Tx 881.430 Rx 836.430 Channel 4 (402) Tx 882.060 Rx 837.060 Channel 5 (423) Tx 882.690 Rx 837.690 Channel 6 (444) Tx 883.320 Rx 838.320 Channel 7 (465) Tx 883.950 Rx 838.950 Channel 8 (486) Tx 884.580 Rx 839.580 Channel 9 (507) Tx 885.210 Rx 840.210 Channel 10 (528) Tx 885.840 Rx 840.840 Channel 11 (549) Tx 886.470 Rx 841.470 Channel 12 (570) Tx 887.100 Rx 842.100 Channel 13 (591) Tx 887.730 Rx 842.730 Channel 14 (612) Tx 888.360 Rx 843.360 Channel 15 (633) Tx 888.990 Rx 843.990 Channel 16 (654) Tx 889.620 Rx 844.620 Cell # 7 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (340) Tx 880.200 Rx 835.200 Channel 2 (361) Tx 880.830 Rx 835.830 Channel 3 (382) Tx 881.460 Rx 836.460 Channel 4 (403) Tx 882.090 Rx 837.090 Channel 5 (424) Tx 882.720 Rx 837.720 Channel 6 (445) Tx 883.350 Rx 838.350 Channel 7 (466) Tx 883.980 Rx 838.980 Channel 8 (487) Tx 884.610 Rx 839.610 Channel 9 (508) Tx 885.240 Rx 840.240 Channel 10 (529) Tx 885.870 Rx 840.870 Channel 11 (550) Tx 886.500 Rx 841.500 Channel 12 (571) Tx 887.130 Rx 842.130 Channel 13 (592) Tx 887.760 Rx 842.760 Channel 14 (613) Tx 888.390 Rx 843.390 Channel 15 (634) Tx 889.020 Rx 844.020 Channel 16 (655) Tx 889.650 Rx 844.650 Cell # 8 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (341) Tx 880.230 Rx 835.230 Channel 2 (362) Tx 880.860 Rx 835.860 Channel 3 (383) Tx 881.490 Rx 836.490 Channel 4 (404) Tx 882.120 Rx 837.120 Channel 5 (425) Tx 882.750 Rx 837.750 Channel 6 (446) Tx 883.380 Rx 838.380 Channel 7 (467) Tx 884.010 Rx 839.010 Channel 8 (488) Tx 884.640 Rx 839.640 Channel 9 (509) Tx 885.270 Rx 840.270 Channel 10 (530) Tx 885.900 Rx 840.900 Channel 11 (551) Tx 886.530 Rx 841.530 Channel 12 (572) Tx 887.160 Rx 842.160 Channel 13 (593) Tx 887.790 Rx 842.790 Channel 14 (614) Tx 888.420 Rx 843.420 Channel 15 (635) Tx 889.050 Rx 844.050 Channel 16 (656) Tx 889.680 Rx 844.680 Cell # 9 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (342) Tx 880.260 Rx 835.260 Channel 2 (363) Tx 880.890 Rx 835.890 Channel 3 (384) Tx 881.520 Rx 836.520 Channel 4 (405) Tx 882.150 Rx 837.150 Channel 5 (426) Tx 882.780 Rx 837.780 Channel 6 (447) Tx 883.410 Rx 838.410 Channel 7 (468) Tx 884.040 Rx 839.040 Channel 8 (489) Tx 884.670 Rx 839.670 Channel 9 (510) Tx 885.300 Rx 840.300 Channel 10 (531) Tx 885.930 Rx 840.930 Channel 11 (552) Tx 886.560 Rx 841.560 Channel 12 (573) Tx 887.190 Rx 842.190 Channel 13 (594) Tx 887.820 Rx 842.820 Channel 14 (615) Tx 888.450 Rx 843.450 Channel 15 (636) Tx 889.080 Rx 844.080 Channel 16 (657) Tx 889.710 Rx 844.710 Cell # 10 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (343) Tx 880.290 Rx 835.290 Channel 2 (364) Tx 880.920 Rx 835.920 Channel 3 (385) Tx 881.550 Rx 836.550 Channel 4 (406) Tx 882.180 Rx 837.180 Channel 5 (427) Tx 882.810 Rx 837.810 Channel 6 (448) Tx 883.440 Rx 838.440 Channel 7 (469) Tx 884.070 Rx 839.070 Channel 8 (490) Tx 884.700 Rx 839.700 Channel 9 (511) Tx 885.330 Rx 840.330 Channel 10 (532) Tx 885.960 Rx 840.960 Channel 11 (553) Tx 886.590 Rx 841.590 Channel 12 (574) Tx 887.220 Rx 842.220 Channel 13 (595) Tx 887.850 Rx 842.850 Channel 14 (616) Tx 888.480 Rx 843.480 Channel 15 (637) Tx 889.110 Rx 844.110 Channel 16 (658) Tx 889.740 Rx 844.740 Cell # 11 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (344) Tx 880.320 Rx 835.320 Channel 2 (365) Tx 880.950 Rx 835.950 Channel 3 (386) Tx 881.580 Rx 836.580 Channel 4 (407) Tx 882.210 Rx 837.210 Channel 5 (428) Tx 882.840 Rx 837.840 Channel 6 (449) Tx 883.470 Rx 838.470 Channel 7 (470) Tx 884.100 Rx 839.100 Channel 8 (491) Tx 884.730 Rx 839.730 Channel 9 (512) Tx 885.360 Rx 840.360 Channel 10 (533) Tx 885.990 Rx 840.990 Channel 11 (554) Tx 886.620 Rx 841.620 Channel 12 (575) Tx 887.250 Rx 842.250 Channel 13 (596) Tx 887.880 Rx 842.880 Channel 14 (617) Tx 888.510 Rx 843.510 Channel 15 (638) Tx 889.140 Rx 844.140 Channel 16 (659) Tx 889.770 Rx 844.770 Cell # 12 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (345) Tx 880.350 Rx 835.350 Channel 2 (366) Tx 880.980 Rx 835.980 Channel 3 (387) Tx 881.610 Rx 836.610 Channel 4 (408) Tx 882.240 Rx 837.240 Channel 5 (429) Tx 882.870 Rx 837.870 Channel 6 (450) Tx 883.500 Rx 838.500 Channel 7 (471) Tx 884.130 Rx 839.130 Channel 8 (492) Tx 884.760 Rx 839.760 Channel 9 (513) Tx 885.390 Rx 840.390 Channel 10 (534) Tx 886.020 Rx 841.020 Channel 11 (555) Tx 886.650 Rx 841.650 Channel 12 (576) Tx 887.280 Rx 842.280 Channel 13 (597) Tx 887.910 Rx 842.910 Channel 14 (618) Tx 888.540 Rx 843.540 Channel 15 (639) Tx 889.170 Rx 844.170 Channel 16 (660) Tx 889.800 Rx 844.800 Cell # 13 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (346) Tx 880.380 Rx 835.380 Channel 2 (367) Tx 881.010 Rx 836.010 Channel 3 (388) Tx 881.640 Rx 836.640 Channel 4 (409) Tx 882.270 Rx 837.270 Channel 5 (430) Tx 882.900 Rx 837.900 Channel 6 (451) Tx 883.530 Rx 838.530 Channel 7 (472) Tx 884.160 Rx 839.160 Channel 8 (493) Tx 884.790 Rx 839.790 Channel 9 (514) Tx 885.420 Rx 840.420 Channel 10 (535) Tx 886.050 Rx 841.050 Channel 11 (556) Tx 886.680 Rx 841.680 Channel 12 (577) Tx 887.310 Rx 842.310 Channel 13 (598) Tx 887.940 Rx 842.940 Channel 14 (619) Tx 888.570 Rx 843.570 Channel 15 (640) Tx 889.200 Rx 844.200 Channel 16 (661) Tx 889.830 Rx 844.830 Cell # 14 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (347) Tx 880.410 Rx 835.410 Channel 2 (368) Tx 881.040 Rx 836.040 Channel 3 (389) Tx 881.670 Rx 836.670 Channel 4 (410) Tx 882.300 Rx 837.300 Channel 5 (431) Tx 882.930 Rx 837.930 Channel 6 (452) Tx 883.560 Rx 838.560 Channel 7 (473) Tx 884.190 Rx 839.190 Channel 8 (494) Tx 884.820 Rx 839.820 Channel 9 (515) Tx 885.450 Rx 840.450 Channel 10 (536) Tx 886.080 Rx 841.080 Channel 11 (557) Tx 886.710 Rx 841.710 Channel 12 (578) Tx 887.340 Rx 842.340 Channel 13 (599) Tx 887.970 Rx 842.970 Channel 14 (620) Tx 888.600 Rx 843.600 Channel 15 (641) Tx 889.230 Rx 844.230 Channel 16 (662) Tx 889.860 Rx 844.860 Cell # 15 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (348) Tx 880.440 Rx 835.440 Channel 2 (369) Tx 881.070 Rx 836.070 Channel 3 (390) Tx 881.700 Rx 836.700 Channel 4 (411) Tx 882.330 Rx 837.330 Channel 5 (432) Tx 882.960 Rx 837.960 Channel 6 (453) Tx 883.590 Rx 838.590 Channel 7 (474) Tx 884.220 Rx 839.220 Channel 8 (495) Tx 884.850 Rx 839.850 Channel 9 (516) Tx 885.480 Rx 840.480 Channel 10 (537) Tx 886.110 Rx 841.110 Channel 11 (558) Tx 886.740 Rx 841.740 Channel 12 (579) Tx 887.370 Rx 842.370 Channel 13 (600) Tx 888.000 Rx 843.000 Channel 14 (621) Tx 888.630 Rx 843.630 Channel 15 (642) Tx 889.260 Rx 844.260 Channel 16 (663) Tx 889.890 Rx 844.890 Cell # 16 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (349) Tx 880.470 Rx 835.470 Channel 2 (370) Tx 881.100 Rx 836.100 Channel 3 (391) Tx 881.730 Rx 836.730 Channel 4 (412) Tx 882.360 Rx 837.360 Channel 5 (433) Tx 882.990 Rx 837.990 Channel 6 (454) Tx 883.620 Rx 838.620 Channel 7 (475) Tx 884.250 Rx 839.250 Channel 8 (496) Tx 884.880 Rx 839.880 Channel 9 (517) Tx 885.510 Rx 840.510 Channel 10 (538) Tx 886.140 Rx 841.140 Channel 11 (559) Tx 886.770 Rx 841.770 Channel 12 (580) Tx 887.400 Rx 842.400 Channel 13 (601) Tx 888.030 Rx 843.030 Channel 14 (622) Tx 888.660 Rx 843.660 Channel 15 (643) Tx 889.290 Rx 844.290 Channel 16 (664) Tx 889.920 Rx 844.920 Cell # 17 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (350) Tx 880.500 Rx 835.500 Channel 2 (371) Tx 881.130 Rx 836.130 Channel 3 (392) Tx 881.760 Rx 836.760 Channel 4 (413) Tx 882.390 Rx 837.390 Channel 5 (434) Tx 883.020 Rx 838.020 Channel 6 (455) Tx 883.650 Rx 838.650 Channel 7 (476) Tx 884.280 Rx 839.280 Channel 8 (497) Tx 884.910 Rx 839.910 Channel 9 (518) Tx 885.540 Rx 840.540 Channel 10 (539) Tx 886.170 Rx 841.170 Channel 11 (560) Tx 886.800 Rx 841.800 Channel 12 (581) Tx 887.430 Rx 842.430 Channel 13 (602) Tx 888.060 Rx 843.060 Channel 14 (623) Tx 888.690 Rx 843.690 Channel 15 (644) Tx 889.320 Rx 844.320 Channel 16 (665) Tx 889.950 Rx 844.950 Cell # 18 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (351) Tx 880.530 Rx 835.530 Channel 2 (372) Tx 881.160 Rx 836.160 Channel 3 (393) Tx 881.790 Rx 836.790 Channel 4 (414) Tx 882.420 Rx 837.420 Channel 5 (435) Tx 883.050 Rx 838.050 Channel 6 (456) Tx 883.680 Rx 838.680 Channel 7 (477) Tx 884.310 Rx 839.310 Channel 8 (498) Tx 884.940 Rx 839.940 Channel 9 (519) Tx 885.570 Rx 840.570 Channel 10 (540) Tx 886.200 Rx 841.200 Channel 11 (561) Tx 886.830 Rx 841.830 Channel 12 (582) Tx 887.460 Rx 842.460 Channel 13 (603) Tx 888.090 Rx 843.090 Channel 14 (624) Tx 888.720 Rx 843.720 Channel 15 (645) Tx 889.350 Rx 844.350 Channel 16 (666) Tx 889.980 Rx 844.980 Cell # 19 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (352) Tx 880.560 Rx 835.560 Channel 2 (373) Tx 881.190 Rx 836.190 Channel 3 (394) Tx 881.820 Rx 836.820 Channel 4 (415) Tx 882.450 Rx 837.450 Channel 5 (436) Tx 883.080 Rx 838.080 Channel 6 (457) Tx 883.710 Rx 838.710 Channel 7 (478) Tx 884.340 Rx 839.340 Channel 8 (499) Tx 884.970 Rx 839.970 Channel 9 (520) Tx 885.600 Rx 840.600 Channel 10 (541) Tx 886.230 Rx 841.230 Channel 11 (562) Tx 886.860 Rx 841.860 Channel 12 (583) Tx 887.490 Rx 842.490 Channel 13 (604) Tx 888.120 Rx 843.120 Channel 14 (625) Tx 888.750 Rx 843.750 Channel 15 (646) Tx 889.380 Rx 844.380 Cell # 20 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (353) Tx 880.590 Rx 835.590 Channel 2 (374) Tx 881.220 Rx 836.220 Channel 3 (395) Tx 881.850 Rx 836.850 Channel 4 (416) Tx 882.480 Rx 837.480 Channel 5 (437) Tx 883.110 Rx 838.110 Channel 6 (458) Tx 883.740 Rx 838.740 Channel 7 (479) Tx 884.370 Rx 839.370 Channel 8 (500) Tx 885.000 Rx 840.000 Channel 9 (521) Tx 885.630 Rx 840.630 Channel 10 (542) Tx 886.260 Rx 841.260 Channel 11 (563) Tx 886.890 Rx 841.890 Channel 12 (584) Tx 887.520 Rx 842.520 Channel 13 (605) Tx 888.150 Rx 843.150 Channel 14 (626) Tx 888.780 Rx 843.780 Channel 15 (647) Tx 889.410 Rx 844.410 Cell # 21 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (354) Tx 880.620 Rx 835.620 Channel 2 (375) Tx 881.250 Rx 836.250 Channel 3 (396) Tx 881.880 Rx 836.880 Channel 4 (417) Tx 882.510 Rx 837.510 Channel 5 (438) Tx 883.140 Rx 838.140 Channel 6 (459) Tx 883.770 Rx 838.770 Channel 7 (480) Tx 884.400 Rx 839.400 Channel 8 (501) Tx 885.030 Rx 840.030 Channel 9 (522) Tx 885.660 Rx 840.660 Channel 10 (543) Tx 886.290 Rx 841.290 Channel 11 (564) Tx 886.920 Rx 841.920 Channel 12 (585) Tx 887.550 Rx 842.550 Channel 13 (606) Tx 888.180 Rx 843.180 Channel 14 (627) Tx 888.810 Rx 843.810 Channel 15 (648) Tx 889.440 Rx 844.440 =============================================================================== Cellular phone frequency and cell construction =============================================================================== __ __ \__/C \__/D \__ \__/G \__/A \__/ _/D \__/E \__/F \__ \__/B \__/C \__/ _/F \__/G \__/A \__ \__/D \__/E \__/ _/A \__/B \__/C \__ \__/ \__/ \__/ This represents how a cellular system might be laid out. Cells A and B never share a common border. Neither do B and C, A and G, etc. Cells that are next to each other are never assigned adjacent frequencies. They always differ by at least 60 kiloHertz. To track a mobile phone as it changes cells, let's put the mobile in a B cell. When the mobile switches frequencies, you know that he could only go to an D, E, F or G cell because A and C have adjacent frequencies. The two tables below will help you determine which channel cells can go next to each other. You can contact your local cellular phone company and see if they have any maps of the cells available. This is not a sure thing, but it couldn't hurt to try. Cells that can go next to each other: Cell Compatible cells A C, D, E, F B D, E, F, G C E, F, G, A D F, G, A, B E G, A, B, C F A, B, C, D G B, C, D, E Here is a frequency/cell layout chart. The cell frequencies are used by the cell site towers, and the mobile frequencies are the input frequencies used by the cars. Wireline company cell frequencies (BAND B) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 889.890 889.920 889.950 889.980 ─┐ 889.680 889.710 889.740 889.770 889.800 889.830 889.860 │ 889.470 889.500 889.530 889.560 889.590 889.620 889.650 │ 889.260 889.290 889.320 889.350 889.380 889.410 889.440 │ 889.050 889.080 889.110 889.140 889.170 889.200 889.230 │ 888.840 888.870 888.900 888.930 888.960 888.990 889.020 │ 888.630 888.660 888.690 888.720 888.750 888.780 888.810 │ 888.420 888.450 888.480 888.510 888.540 888.570 888.600 │ 888.210 888.240 888.270 888.300 888.330 888.360 888.390 │ 888.000 888.030 888.060 888.090 888.120 888.150 888.180 │ 887.790 887.820 887.850 887.880 887.910 887.940 887.970 │ 887.580 887.610 887.640 887.670 887.700 887.730 887.760 │ 887.370 887.400 887.430 887.460 887.490 887.520 887.550 │ 887.160 887.190 887.220 887.250 887.280 887.310 887.340 │ 886.950 886.980 887.010 887.040 887.070 887.100 887.130 │ 886.740 886.770 886.800 886.830 886.860 886.890 886.920 │ 886.530 886.560 886.590 886.620 886.650 886.680 886.710 │ 886.320 886.350 886.380 886.410 886.440 886.470 886.500 │Voice 886.110 886.140 886.170 886.200 886.230 886.260 886.290 │ 885.900 885.930 885.960 885.990 886.020 886.050 886.080 │ 885.690 885.720 885.750 885.780 885.810 885.840 885.870 │ 885.480 885.510 885.540 885.570 885.600 885.630 885.660 │ 885.270 885.300 885.330 885.360 885.390 885.420 885.450 │ 885.060 885.090 885.120 885.150 885.180 885.210 885.240 │ 884.850 884.880 884.910 884.940 884.970 885.000 885.030 │ 884.640 884.670 884.700 884.730 884.760 884.790 884.820 │ 884.430 884.460 884.490 884.520 884.550 884.580 884.610 │ 884.220 884.250 884.280 884.310 884.340 884.370 884.400 │ 884.010 884.040 884.070 884.100 884.130 884.160 884.190 │Channels 883.800 883.830 883.860 883.890 883.920 883.950 883.980 │ 883.590 883.620 883.650 883.680 883.710 883.740 883.770 │ 883.380 883.410 883.440 883.470 883.500 883.530 883.560 │ 883.170 883.200 883.230 883.260 883.290 883.320 883.350 │ 882.960 882.990 883.020 883.050 883.080 883.110 883.140 │ 882.750 882.780 882.810 882.840 882.870 882.900 882.930 │ 882.540 882.570 882.600 882.630 882.660 882.690 882.720 │ 882.330 882.360 882.390 882.420 882.450 882.480 882.510 │ 882.120 882.150 882.180 882.210 882.240 882.270 882.300 │ 881.910 881.940 881.970 882.000 882.030 882.060 882.090 │ 881.700 881.730 881.760 881.790 881.820 881.850 881.880 │ 881.490 881.520 881.550 881.580 881.610 881.640 881.670 │ 881.280 881.310 881.340 881.370 881.400 881.430 881.460 │ 881.070 881.100 881.130 881.160 881.190 881.220 881.250 │ 880.860 880.890 880.920 880.950 880.980 881.010 881.040 │ 880.650 880.680 880.710 880.740 880.770 880.800 880.830 ─┘ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 880.440 880.470 880.500 880.530 880.560 880.590 880.620 ─┐Digital 880.230 880.260 880.290 880.320 880.350 880.380 880.410 │Control 880.020 880.050 880.080 880.110 880.140 880.170 880.200 ─┘Channels Wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND B) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 844.890 844.920 844.950 844.980 ─┐ 844.680 844.710 844.740 844.770 844.800 844.830 844.860 │ 844.470 844.500 844.530 844.560 844.590 844.620 844.650 │ 844.260 844.290 844.320 844.350 844.380 844.410 844.440 │ 844.050 844.080 844.110 844.140 844.170 844.200 844.230 │ 843.840 843.870 843.900 843.930 843.960 843.990 844.020 │ 843.630 843.660 843.690 843.720 843.750 843.780 843.810 │ 843.420 843.450 843.480 843.510 843.540 843.570 843.600 │ 843.210 843.240 843.270 843.300 843.330 843.360 843.390 │ 843.000 843.030 843.060 843.090 843.120 843.150 843.180 │ 842.790 842.820 842.850 842.880 842.910 842.940 842.970 │ 842.580 842.610 842.640 842.670 842.700 842.730 842.760 │ 842.370 842.400 842.430 842.460 842.490 842.520 842.550 │ 842.160 842.190 842.220 842.250 842.280 842.310 842.340 │ 841.950 841.980 842.010 842.040 842.070 842.100 842.130 │ 841.740 841.770 841.800 841.830 841.860 841.890 841.920 │ 841.530 841.560 841.590 841.620 841.650 841.680 841.710 │ 841.320 841.350 841.380 841.410 841.440 841.470 841.500 │Voice 841.110 841.140 841.170 841.200 841.230 841.260 841.290 │ 840.900 840.930 840.960 840.990 841.020 841.050 841.080 │ 840.690 840.720 840.750 840.780 840.810 840.840 840.870 │ 840.480 840.510 840.540 840.570 840.600 840.630 840.660 │ 840.270 840.300 840.330 840.360 840.390 840.420 840.450 │ 840.060 840.090 840.120 840.150 840.180 840.210 840.240 │ 839.850 839.880 839.910 839.940 839.970 840.000 840.030 │ 839.640 839.670 839.700 839.730 839.760 839.790 839.820 │ 839.430 839.460 839.490 839.520 839.550 839.580 839.610 │ 839.220 839.250 839.280 839.310 839.340 839.370 839.400 │ 839.010 839.040 839.070 839.100 839.130 839.160 839.190 │Channels 838.800 838.830 838.860 838.890 838.920 838.950 838.980 │ 838.590 838.620 838.650 838.680 838.710 838.740 838.770 │ 838.380 838.410 838.440 838.470 838.500 838.530 838.560 │ 838.170 838.200 838.230 838.260 838.290 838.320 838.350 │ 837.960 837.990 838.020 838.050 838.080 838.110 838.140 │ 837.750 837.780 837.810 837.840 837.870 837.900 837.930 │ 837.540 837.570 837.600 837.630 837.660 837.690 837.720 │ 837.330 837.360 837.390 837.420 837.450 837.480 837.510 │ 837.120 837.150 837.180 837.210 837.240 837.270 837.300 │ 836.910 836.940 836.970 837.000 837.030 837.060 837.090 │ 836.700 836.730 836.760 836.790 836.820 836.850 836.880 │ 836.490 836.520 836.550 836.580 836.610 836.640 836.670 │ 836.280 836.310 836.340 836.370 836.400 836.430 836.460 │ 836.070 836.100 836.130 836.160 836.190 836.220 836.250 │ 835.860 835.890 835.920 835.950 835.980 836.010 836.040 │ 835.650 835.680 835.710 835.740 835.770 835.800 835.830 ─┘ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 835.440 835.470 835.500 835.530 835.560 835.590 835.620 ─┐Digital 835.230 835.260 835.290 835.320 835.350 835.380 835.410 │Control 835.020 835.050 835.080 835.110 835.140 835.170 835.200 ─┘Channels =============================================================================== Non-wireline company cell frequencies (BAND A) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 879.900 879.930 879.960 879.990 ─┐Digital 879.690 879.720 879.750 879.780 879.810 879.840 879.870 │Control 879.480 879.510 879.540 879.570 879.600 879.630 879.660 │Channels ------------------------------------- 879.390 879.420 879.450 ─┘ 879.270 879.300 879.330 879.360 --------------------------- ─┐ 879.060 879.090 879.120 879.150 879.180 879.210 879.240 │ 878.850 878.880 878.910 878.940 878.970 879.000 879.030 │ 878.640 878.670 878.700 878.730 878.760 878.790 878.820 │ 878.430 878.460 878.490 878.520 878.550 878.580 878.610 │ 878.220 878.250 878.280 878.310 878.340 878.370 878.400 │ 878.010 878.040 878.070 878.100 878.130 878.160 878.190 │ 877.800 877.830 877.860 877.890 877.920 877.950 877.980 │ 877.590 877.620 877.650 877.680 877.710 877.740 877.770 │ 877.380 877.410 877.440 877.470 877.500 877.530 877.560 │ 877.170 877.200 877.230 877.260 877.290 877.320 877.350 │ 876.960 876.990 877.020 877.050 877.080 877.110 877.140 │ 876.750 876.780 876.810 876.840 876.870 876.900 876.930 │ 876.540 876.570 876.600 876.630 876.660 876.690 876.720 │ 876.330 876.360 876.390 876.420 876.450 876.480 876.510 │ 876.120 876.150 876.180 876.210 876.240 876.270 876.300 │ 875.910 875.940 875.970 876.000 876.030 876.060 876.090 │ 875.700 875.730 875.760 875.790 875.820 875.850 875.880 │ Voice 875.490 875.520 875.550 875.580 875.610 875.640 875.670 │ 875.280 875.310 875.340 875.370 875.400 875.430 875.460 │ 875.070 875.100 875.130 875.160 875.190 875.220 875.250 │ 874.860 874.890 874.920 874.950 874.980 875.010 875.040 │ 874.650 874.680 874.710 874.740 874.770 874.800 874.830 │ 874.440 874.470 874.500 874.530 874.560 874.590 874.620 │ 874.230 874.260 874.290 874.320 874.350 874.380 874.410 │ 874.020 874.050 874.080 874.110 874.140 874.170 874.200 │ 873.810 873.840 873.870 873.900 873.930 873.960 873.990 │ 873.600 873.630 873.660 873.690 873.720 873.750 873.780 │ 873.390 873.420 873.450 873.480 873.510 873.540 873.570 │ Channels 873.180 873.210 873.240 873.270 873.300 873.330 873.360 │ 872.970 873.000 873.030 873.060 873.090 873.120 873.150 │ 872.760 872.790 872.820 872.850 872.880 872.910 872.940 │ 872.550 872.580 872.610 872.640 872.670 872.700 872.730 │ 872.340 872.370 872.400 872.430 872.460 872.490 872.520 │ 872.130 872.160 872.190 872.220 872.250 872.280 872.310 │ 871.920 871.950 871.980 872.010 872.040 872.070 872.100 │ 871.710 871.740 871.770 871.800 871.830 871.860 871.890 │ 871.500 871.530 871.560 871.590 871.620 871.650 871.680 │ 871.290 871.320 871.350 871.380 871.410 871.440 871.470 │ 871.080 871.110 871.140 871.170 871.200 871.230 871.260 │ 870.870 870.900 870.930 870.960 870.990 871.020 871.050 │ 870.660 870.690 870.720 870.750 870.780 870.810 870.840 │ 870.450 870.480 870.510 870.540 870.570 870.600 870.630 │ 870.240 870.270 870.300 870.330 870.360 870.390 870.420 │ 870.030 870.060 870.090 870.120 870.150 870.180 870.210 ─┘ Non-wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND A) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 834.900 834.930 834.960 834.990 ─┐Digital 834.690 834.720 834.750 834.780 834.810 834.840 834.870 │Control 834.480 834.510 834.540 834.570 834.600 834.630 834.660 │Channels ------------------------------------- 834.390 834.420 834.450 ─┘ 834.270 834.300 834.330 834.360 --------------------------- ─┐ 834.060 834.090 834.120 834.150 834.180 834.210 834.240 │ 833.850 833.880 833.910 833.940 833.970 834.000 834.030 │ 833.640 833.670 833.700 833.730 833.760 833.790 833.820 │ 833.430 833.460 833.490 833.520 833.550 833.580 833.610 │ 833.220 833.250 833.280 833.310 833.340 833.370 833.400 │ 833.010 833.040 833.070 833.100 833.130 833.160 833.190 │ 832.800 832.830 832.860 832.890 832.920 832.950 832.980 │ 832.590 832.620 832.650 832.680 832.710 832.740 832.770 │ 832.380 832.410 832.440 832.470 832.500 832.530 832.560 │ 832.170 832.200 832.230 832.260 832.290 832.320 832.350 │ 831.960 831.990 832.020 832.050 832.080 832.110 832.140 │ 831.750 831.780 831.810 831.840 831.870 831.900 831.930 │ 831.540 831.570 831.600 831.630 831.660 831.690 831.720 │ 831.330 831.360 831.390 831.420 831.450 831.480 831.510 │ 831.120 831.150 831.180 831.210 831.240 831.270 831.300 │ 830.910 830.940 830.970 831.000 831.030 831.060 831.090 │ 830.700 830.730 830.760 830.790 830.820 830.850 830.880 │ Voice 830.490 830.520 830.550 830.580 830.610 830.640 830.670 │ 830.280 830.310 830.340 830.370 830.400 830.430 830.460 │ 830.070 830.100 830.130 830.160 830.190 830.220 830.250 │ 829.860 829.890 829.920 829.950 829.980 830.010 830.040 │ 829.650 829.680 829.710 829.740 829.770 829.800 829.830 │ 829.440 829.470 829.500 829.530 829.560 829.590 829.620 │ 829.230 829.260 829.290 829.320 829.350 829.380 829.410 │ 829.020 829.050 829.080 829.110 829.140 829.170 829.200 │ 828.810 828.840 828.870 828.900 828.930 828.960 828.990 │ 828.600 828.630 828.660 828.690 828.720 828.750 828.780 │ 828.390 828.420 828.450 828.480 828.510 828.540 828.570 │ Channels 828.180 828.210 828.240 828.270 828.300 828.330 828.360 │ 827.970 828.000 828.030 828.060 828.090 828.120 828.150 │ 827.760 827.790 827.820 827.850 827.880 827.910 827.940 │ 827.550 827.580 827.610 827.640 827.670 827.700 827.730 │ 827.340 827.370 827.400 827.430 827.460 827.490 827.520 │ 827.130 827.160 827.190 827.220 827.250 827.280 827.310 │ 826.920 826.950 826.980 827.010 827.040 827.070 827.100 │ 826.710 826.740 826.770 826.800 826.830 826.860 826.890 │ 826.500 826.530 826.560 826.590 826.620 826.650 826.680 │ 826.290 826.320 826.350 826.380 826.410 826.440 826.470 │ 826.080 826.110 826.140 826.170 826.200 826.230 826.260 │ 825.870 825.900 825.930 825.960 825.990 826.020 826.050 │ 825.660 825.690 825.720 825.750 825.780 825.810 825.840 │ 825.450 825.480 825.510 825.540 825.570 825.600 825.630 │ 825.240 825.270 825.300 825.330 825.360 825.390 825.420 │ 825.030 825.060 825.090 825.120 825.150 825.180 825.210 ─┘ Monitoring of the base sites is obviously going to be easier than monitoring the mobiles. The cell base sites are towers (usually blue) with a triangle shaped "head" on top, and sporting a couple of what appear to be vertical antennas. These base sites have a range of 3-5 miles. If you take a look at the honeycomb diagram, you can see how they are laid out. The cell transmitter is in the middle of the cell. It is possible to hear many, most, or all of the cells in your city, depending on your location. The closer you live to a boundary, the greater the chances of your being able to receive more cells. Due to the nature of radio signals, the actual cell shape is more or less round. However, the hexagon shape lends itself better to show how the system is laid out. With a circular coverage area, there will be some overlapping between adjacent cells. __ __ \__/C \__/D \__ \__/G \__/A \__/ _/D \__/E \__/F \__ \__/B \__*C \__/ _/F \__/G \__/A \__ \__/D \__/E \__/ _/A \__/B \__/C \__ \__/ \__/ \__/ If, for example, you live near the asterisk (*) in the above diagram, you will be able go easily hear the G, C, E, and A cells you're near. Since the maximum _practical_ range of a cell is 3-5 miles, you'll be able to hear them a bit farther away. However, due to the nature of the FM transceivers at the cell sites (they capture only the _strongest_ signal), you should be able to hear all seven cells. Which _one_ of each cell you hear will depend on your location and the strength of the received signal. In the above diagram, you'll most likely hear the F cell in the upper right, rather than the one on the left. Mobile reception is almost a waste of time unless you have an outdoor antenna. And, since the mobile will be repeated on the cell site, it's better to listen to the cell frequencies. You may not be able to hear both sides of the conversation if you listen only to the mobile frequencies!!! It is useful, however, for determining which channel cell you're in. If you use the antenna that came with the scanner, mobile range will be decreased down to 1 or 2 miles. By checking the scanner readout against the cell list above (825.030-844.980 MHz), you can tell what cell the mobile is in. This is also useful on the cell site frequencies. If you hear someone say, "I'm at the corner of highway FF and 37," and you know where the cell site antenna is in that area, you can check the frequency listing above and determine what cell that antenna belongs to. ******************************************************************************* Where to get What you NEED! Obviously, a device is needed to download all those ESN/MINs etc. off the cellular airwaves. Heres the stuff I found so far that is under $2000 (This ain't a cheap hobby) CCS Company, P.O. Box 11191, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (Mark 414-781-2482) They sell everything ya need for $3-400. Kits are cheaper. Their device interfaces between a 800 mhz capable scanner & your computer. Make sure you tell them you want the REVERSE model DDI. (this tis what I use) Curtis Electro Devices, 1235 Pear Ave, Mountain View,CA 94043 800-332-2790 Fax 415-964-3574 They sell an ESN reader for $1295 that can read ESN\MIN\etc. but only from a short distance (Max= 30 ft.) They also sell a security model for $1595 and a nam programmer for $1195. They publish a book called NAMFAX for $179 that tells ya how to re-program hundreds of different cellulars through the keypad on the handset. (Note-You can't reprogram ESNs through the keypap unless you re-write the phones software.) Wavetek Communications Div., 5808 Churchman Bypass, Indianapolis, IN 46203-6109, 800-245-6356 or 317-788-5965 They sell a "Cellular I.D. Tester" thats real similiar to Curtis's ESN reader but supposedly has a longer range. price= $1495. Needham Electronics, 4539 Orange Grove Ave., Sacramento, CA 95841 916-924-8037 They sell eprom burners for $139.95 (I bought one myself) Motorola, 1-800-433-5202 They sell a Cellular service manual thats used in their cellular service classes for $30. Ask for the Order Fullfillment dept: Item # 68-093-00a60. This manual tells it all! An absolute must to have. (Remember-ya can use your credit card for many items! hehe) Bishop Co: 800-829-0572 They publish books similiar to Curtis's Namfax. send for catalog ****************************************************************** Cellular Security Well we know a properly cloned cell phone is virtually impossible to detect- or is it? Security companies rely on matching call patterns of subscribers historys to current use. I.E. when 200 calls to Bum Fuck Egypt show up in a day or 80 long distance calls to Culman Alabama show up in a short period, all kinds of Flags & whistles go off! The security companies will even keep records of people that call numbers that have been previously called by Tumbled phones & flag the phone calling that number as a potential fraudulent phone. These flags can be set go go off by a number of parameters: Number of LD calls per Hr/Day/mo, etc. Another method they use is when the real phone places a call & the Tumbled phone places another call soon afterwards, but from a distance from the 1st call thats impossible to travel in such a short period of time. I.E. At 5 P.M. friday phone A calls from Manhatten & completes call at 5.10 p.m. At 5.12 P.M. Cloned phone B calls from Queens. No-one can travel those distances in 2 minutes, thus that ESN/MIN is tagged as a Clone by the phone company. These databases are just now starting to be used in larger cities. Some software will track a flagged cell phone from cell site to cell site. Commonly used discrepancies cell co software looks for are different ESNs, Manufacturer, model, SCMs, etc. that are broadcast by the cellular phone on its REVERSE channel. (If one captures all that data off the Reverse channel & incorporates it in the CLONED phone, detection via this method becomes nearly impossible.) Some daring souls have been known to use fake ID & Cards to even subscribe to a cellular service, then burn out the phone before the first months bill arrives to the unsuspecting real person. **************************************************************************** Conclusion The future for cellular fraud is wide open. As the secret software of the over 300 brands of cellular phones in existance becomes "Cracked" and re-written and spread via the underground, Fraud will increase like Wildfire. Virtually nothing can be done to stop the informed phone phreak as he will change ESN/MINs, etc. easily and frequently. A new era not seen since the 2600 hz tone was discovered is just now dawning via cellular phreaking. Nuff Said, Bootleg P.S. Since I'm lettin the cat out of the bag for the 1st time here, I hereby dub the box needed to read REVERSE channels the BOO Box! (Shit- after 12 years I finally get to name a box.) hehe =============================================================================== The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 and CMT =============================================================================== The ECPA, passed in 1986, is partly responsible for the extreme interest in CMT monitoring. After all, if you tell someone they can't listen to these phone calls, they'll immediately want to do so. "There must be _something_ going on there that's either interesting or important. Why else would they want to keep us from listening?" seems to be the predominant reaction. Be assured that it is illegal under the ECPA to listen to cellular phone calls. This law was passed mainly to satisfy the CMT manufacturers. They can now tell their customers that their conversations are 'protected by federal law.' However, when this law was drawn up, it was obviously felt to be too narrow in its views, since it protected only one service. So it was amended to include various services, such as microwaves, some satellites, broadcast STL links (studio-transmitter links), and the descrambling of scrambled signals. However, from the very beginning, the government has shown an extremely bored attitude when it comes to the ECPA. There is virtually no attempt at enforcement, unless it's a case involving blackmail, or an overt attempt is being made to provide radios with CMT-specific frequencies. In the latter case, a dealer was modifying the radios he was selling. After a government visit, he agreed not to modify the radios, but he was allowed to include instructions on how to make the modification. With the Pro-2005 and Pro-2006, this consists of opening the radio and clipping one diode, an operation that takes all of 15 minutes, including disassembly. What does all this mean? You can receive any frequency you wish. There is literally no way to tell what you're listening to in the privacy of your home. Your scanner (as well as EVERY radio) _does_ transmit an extremely small amount of RF energy from the local oscillator, but unless the radio is in very bad shape, that energy won't go past 40 or 50 feet. The "gummint" would have to drive around in detection vans with beam antennas, and with 100,000 scanner owners, it's an extremely good bet that they're not even going to consider thinking about the merest possibility that someone might put this idea forward to be comtemplated. They've got more important stuff to worry about. What it comes down to is this: listen to whatever you want to, but don't divulge it or use the information for personal or illegal gain. That will get you into deep doo-doo in double-quick time. Most people have the opinion that if it's unscrambled, and it's passing freely through their home and body, that they have the right to receive it. This sounds like good solid thinking. The laws of this land provide for just compensation to individuals. Perhaps a few bills to CMT companies for transmission rights would help to remove this silly law from the books. =============================================================================== The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 =============================================================================== February 2, 1987 TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PART I. CRIMES Chapter Sec. * * * General provisions............................................. 1 * * * 119. Wire and electronic communications interception and interception of oral communications................. 2510 * * * 121. Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional Records Access...................................... 2701 * * * PART II. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 201. General provisions.................................. 3001 * * * 206. Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices............ 3121 * * * CHAPTER 65 - MALICIOUS MISCHIEF Sec. * * * 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite. * * * { 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite (a) Whoever, without the authority of the satellite operator, intentionally or maliciously interferes with the authorized operation of a communications or weather satellite or obstructs or hinders any satellite transmission shall be fined in accordance with this title or imprisoned not more than ten years of both. (b) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency or of an intelligence agency of the United States. * * * CHAPTER 109 - SEARCHES AND SEIZURES * * * { 2232. Destruction or removal of property to prevent seizure (a) Physical Interference With Search. -- Whoever, before, during, or after seizure of any property by any person authorized to make searches and seizures, in order to prevent the seizure or securing of any goods, wares, or merchandise by such person, staves, breaks, throws overboard, destroys, or removes the same, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned more than five years, or both. (b) Notice of Search. -- Whoever, having knowledge that any person authorized to make searches and seizures has been authorized or is otherwise likely to make a search or seizure, in order to prevent the authorized seizing or securing of any per- son, goods, wares, merchandise or other property, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible search or seizure to any person shall be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (c) Notice of Certain Electronic Surveillance. -- Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization under chapter 119 to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such interception, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible interception to any person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization to conduct electronic surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (50 U.S.C. 1801, et seq.), in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such activity, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible activity to any person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. * * * CHAPTER 119 -- WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS INTERCEPTION AND INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS Sec. 2510. Definitions. 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications prohibited. 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited. 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting devices. 2514. Immunity of witnesses. 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral or electronic communications. 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized. 2521. Injunction against illegal interception. { 2510. Definitions As used in this chapter -- (1) "wire communication" means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications affecting interstate or foreign commerce and such term includes any electronic storage of such communication, but such term does not include the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit; (2) "oral communication" means any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying such expectation, but such term does not include any electronic communication; * * * (4) "intercept" means the aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device. (5) "electronic mechanical, or other device" means any device or apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication other than -- (a) any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communication service in the ordinary course of its business and being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its business or furnished by such subscriber or user for connection to the facilities of such service and used in the ordinary course of its business; or (ii) being used by a communications common carrier in the ordinary course of its business, or by an investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of his duties; * * * (8) "contents", when used with respect to any wire, oral, or electronic communication, includes any information concerning the substance, purport, or meaning of that communication; (9) "Judge of competent jurisdiction" means -- (a) a judge of a United States district court or a United States court of appeals; and (b) a judge of any court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State who is authorized by a statute of that State to enter orders authorizing interceptions of wire, oral, or electronic communications; (10) "communication common carrier" shall have the same meaning which is given the term "common carrier" by section 153(h) of title 47 of the United States Code; (11) "aggrieved person" means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against whom the interception was directed; (12) "electronic communication" means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photo optical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce, but does not include -- (A) the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit; (B) any wire or oral communication; (C) any communication made through a tone-only paging device; or (D) any communication from a tracking device (as defined in section 3117 of this title); (13) "user" means any person or entity who -- (A) uses an electronic communication service; and (B) is duly authorized by the provider of such service to engage in such use; (14) "electronic communications system" means any wire, radio, electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the transmission of electronic communications, and any computer facilities or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such communications; (15) "electronic communication service" means any service which provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications; (16) "readily accessible to the general public" means, with respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not -- (A) scrambled or encrypted; (B) transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of such communication; (C) carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (D) transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system communication; or (E) transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25, subpart D, E, or F of part 74, or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio; (17) "electronic storage" means -- (A) any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission thereof; and (B) any storage of such communication by an electronic communication service for purposes of backup protection of such communication; and (18) "aural transfer" means a transfer containing the human voice at any point between and including the point of origin and the point of reception. { 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any person who-- (a) intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral, or electronic communication; (b) intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any other person to use or endeavor to use any electronic, mechanical, or other device to intercept any oral communication when -- (i) such device is affixed to, or otherwise transmits a signal through, a wire, cable, or other like connection used in wire communication; or (ii) such device transmits communications by radio, or interferes with the transmission of such communication; or (iii) such person knows, or has reason to know, that such device or any component thereof has been sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or (iv) such use or endeavor to use (A) takes place on the premises of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (B) obtains or is for the purpose of obtaining information relating to the operations of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (v) such person acts in the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States; (c) intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or have reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; or (d) intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) or shall be subject to suit as provided in subsection (5). (2)(a)(i) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire or electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of his employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service, except that a provider of wire communication service to the public shall not utilize service observing or random monitoring except for mechanical or service quality control checks. (ii) Notwithstanding any other law, providers of wire or electronic communication service, their officers, employees, and agents, landlords, custodians, or other persons, are authorized to provide information facilities, or technical assistance to persons authorized by law to intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications or to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, if such provider its officers, employees, or agents, land- lord, custodian, or other specified person has been provided with -- (A) a court order directing such assistance signed by the authorizing judge, or (B) a certification in writing by a person specified in section 2518(7) of this title or the Attorney General of the United States that no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is required. setting forth the period of time during which the provision of the information, facilities, or technical assistance is authorized and specifying the information, facilities, or technical assistance required. No provider of wire or electronic communication service officer, employee, or agent thereof, or landlord, custodian, or other specified person shall disclose the existence of any interception or surveillance of the device used to accomplish the interception or surveillance with respect to which the person has been furnished an order or certification under this subparagraph, except as may otherwise be required by legal process and then only after prior notification to the Attorney General or to the principal prosecuting attorney of a State or any political subdivision of a State, as may be appropriate. Any such disclosure, shall render such person liable for the civil damages provided for in section 2520. No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service its officers, employees, or agents, landlord, custodian, or other specified person for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order or certification under this chapter. (b) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an officer, employee, or agent of the Federal Communications Commission, in the normal course of his employment and in discharge of the monitoring responsibilities exercised by the Commission in the enforcement of chapter 5 of title 57 of the United States Code, to intercept a wire or electronic communication, or oral communication transmitted by radio, or to disclose or use the information thereby obtained. (c) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, where such person is a party to the communication or one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception. (d) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or section 705 or 706 of the Communications Act of 1934, it shall not be unlawful for an office, employee, or agent of the United States in the normal course of his official duty to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as authorized by that Act. (f) Nothing contained in this chapter or chapter 121, or section 705 of the Communications Act of 1934, shall be deemed to affect the acquisition by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from international or foreign communication, or foreign intelligence activities conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than electronic surveillance as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and procedures in this chapter and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of such Act, and the interception of domestic wire and oral communications may be conducted. (g) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter or chapter 121 of this title for any person -- (i) to intercept or access an electronic communication made through an electronic communication system that is configured so that such electronic communication is readily accessible to the general public; (ii) to intercept any radio communication which is transmitted -- (I) by any station for the use of the general public, or that relates to ships, aircraft, vehicles, or persons in distress; (II) by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense private land mobile, or public safety communications system, including police and fire, readily accessible to the general public; (III) by a station operating on an authorized frequency within the bands allocated to the amateur, citizens band, or general mobile radio services; or (IV) by any marine or aeronautical communications system; (iii) to engage in any conduct which -- (I) is prohibited by section 633 of the Communications Act of 1934; or (II) is excepted from the application of section 705(a) of the Communications Act of 1934 by section 705(b) of that Act; (iv) to intercept any wire or electronic communication the transmission of which is causing harmful interference to any lawfully operating station or consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of such interference; or (v) for other users of the same frequency to intercept any radio communication made through a system that utilizes frequencies monitored by individuals engaged in the provision or the use of such system, if such communication is not scrambled or encrypted. (h) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter -- (i) to use a pen register or a trap and trace device (as those terms are defined for the purposes of chapter 206 (relating to pen registers and trap and trace devices) of this title); or (ii) for a provider of electronic communication service to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire or electronic communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of such service. (3)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection a person or entity providing an electronic communication service to the public shall not intentionally divulge the contents of any communication (other than one to such person or entity, or an agent thereof) while in transmission on that service to any person or entity other than an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient. (b) A person or entity providing electronic communication service to the public may divulge the contents of any such communication -- (i) as otherwise authorized in section 2511(2)(a) or 2517 of this title; (ii) with the lawful consent of the originator or any addressee or intended recipient of such communication; (iii) to a person employed or authorized, or whose facilities are used, to forward such communication to its destination; or (iv) which were inadvertently obtained by the service provider and which appear to pertain to the commission of a crime, if such divulgence is made to a law enforcement agency. (4)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection or in subsection (5), whoever violates subsection (1) of this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (b) If the offense is a first offense under paragraph (a) of this subsection and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, and the wire or electronic communication with respect to which the offense under paragraph (a) is a radio communication that is not scrambled or encrypted, then -- (i) If the communication is not the radio portion of a cellular telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service communication or a paging service communication, and the conduct is not that described in subsection (5), the offender shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, and (ii) if the communication is the radio portion of a cellular telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service communication or a paging service communication, the offender shall be fined not more than $500. (c) Conduct otherwise an offense under this subsection that consists of or relates to the interception of a satellite transmission that is not encrypted or scrambled and that is transmitted -- (i) to a broadcasting station for purposes of retransmission to the general public; or (ii) as an audio subcarrier intended for redistribution to facilities open to the public, but not including data transmissions or telephone calls, is not an offense under this subsection unless the conduct is for the purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial gain. (5)(a)(i) If the communication is -- (A) a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of that communication and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain; or (B) a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain. then the person who engages in such conduct shall be subject to suit by the Federal Government in a court of competent jurisdiction. (ii) In an action under this subsection -- (A) if the violation of this chapter is a first offense for the person under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) and such person has not been found liable in a civil action under section 2520 of this title, the Federal Government shall be entitled to appropriate injunctive relief; and (B) if the violation of this chapter is a second or subsequent offense under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) or such person has been found liable in any prior civil action under section 2520, the person shall be subject to a mandatory $500 civil fine. (b) The court may use any means within its authority to enforce an injunction issued under paragraph (ii)(A), and shall impose a civil fine of not less than $500 for each violation of such an injunction, { 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any person who intentionally -- (a) sends through the mail, or sends or carriers in interstate or foreign commerce, any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications; (b) manufacturers, assembles, possesses, or sells any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, and that such device or any component thereof has been or will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or (c) places in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publication any advertisement of-- (i) any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications; or (ii) any other electronic, mechanical, or other device, where such advertisement promotes the use of such device for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, knowing or having reason to know that such advertisement will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (2) It shall not be unlawful under this section for- (a) a provider of wire or electronic communication service or an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, such a provider, in the normal course of the business of providing that wire or electronic communication service, or (b) an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, in the normal course of the activities of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, to send through the mail, send or carry in interstate or foreign commerce, or manufacture, assemble, possess, or sell any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. { 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting devices Any electronic, mechanical, or other device used, sent, carried, manufactured, assembled, possessed, sold, or advertised in violation of section 2511 or section+ 2512 of this chapter may be seized and forfeited to the United States. All provisions of law relating to (1) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violations of the customs laws contained in title 19 of the United States Code, (2) the disposition of such vessels, - vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from the sale thereof, (3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, (4) the compromise of claims, and (5) the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures, shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section; except that such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the provisions of the customs laws contained in title 19 of the United States Code shall be performed with respect to seizure and forfeiture of electronic, mechanical, or other intercepting devices under this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be authorized or designated for that purpose of the Attorney General. { 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications Whenever any wire, oral, or electronic communications has been intercepted, no part of the contents of such communication and no evidence derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof if the disclosure of that information would be in violation of this chapter. { 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) The Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorney General, any Assistant Attorney General, any acting Assistant Attorney General, or any Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Criminal Division specially designated by the Attorney General, may authorize an application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire of oral communications by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or a Federal agency having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of- (a) any offense punishable by death or by imprisonment for more than one year under sections 2274 through 2277 of title 42 of the United States Code (relating to the enforcement of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954), section 2284 of title 42 of the United States Code (relating to sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel), or under the following chapters of this title: chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), chapter 115 (relating to treason), chapter 192 (relating to riots), chapter 65 (relating to malicious matter mischief), chapter 111 (relating to destruction of vessels), or chapter 81 (relating to piracy); (b) a violation of section 186 or section 501(c) of title 29, United States Code (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to labor organizations), or any offense which involves murders, kidnapping, robbery, or extortion, and which is punishable under this title; c) any offense which is punishable under the following section of this title: section 201 (bribery of public officials and witnesses), section 224 (bribery in sporting contests), subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of section 844 (unlawful use of explosives), section 1084 (transmission of wagering information), section 751 (relating to escape), sections 1503, 1512, and 1513 (influencing or injuring an officer, juror, or witness generally), section 1510 (obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1751 (Presidential and Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 1951 (interference with commerce by threats or violence), section 1952 (interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering enterprises), section 1952A (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder for hire), section 1952B (relating to violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity), section 1954 (offer acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of employee benefit plan), section 1955 (prohibition of business enterprises of gambling), section 659 (theft from interstate shipment), section 664 (embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), section 1343 (fraud by wire, radio, or television), section 2252 or 2253 (sexual exploitation of children), Section 2251 and 2252 (sexual exploitation of children), section 2312, 2313, 2314, and 2315 (interstate transportation of stolen property), the second section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1029 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section 3146 (relating to penalty for failure to appear), section 3521(b)(3) (relating to witness relocation and assistance), section 32 (relating to destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities), section 1963 violations with respect to racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations), section 115 (relating to threatening or retaliating against a Federal official), the section in chapter 65 relating to destruction of an energy facility, and section 1341 (relating to mail fraud), section 351 (violations with respect to congressional, Cabinet, or Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 831 (relating to prohibited transaction involving nuclear materials), section 33 (relating to destruction of motor vehicles or motor vehicle facilities), or section 1992 (relating to wrecking trains); (d) any offense involving counterfeiting punishable under section 471, 472, or 473 of this title; (e) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title 11 or the manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana, or other dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States; (f) any offense including extortionate credit transactions under sections 892, 893, or 894 of this title; (g) a violation of section 5322 of title 31, United States Code (dealing with the reporting of currency transactions); (h) any felony violation of sections 511 and 2512 (relating to interception and disclosure of certain communications and to certain intercepting devices) of this title; (i) any violation of section 1679(c)(2) (relating to destruction of a natural gas pipeline) or subsection (i) or (n) of the United States Code; (j) any criminal violation of section 2778 of title 22 (relating to the Arms Export Control Act); or (k) the location of any fugitive from justice from an offense described in this section; or (l) any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses. (2) The principal prosecuting attorney of any State, or the principal prosecuting attorney of any political subdivision thereof, if such attorney is authorized by a statute of that State to make application to a State court judge of competent jurisdiction for an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, may apply to such judge for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter and with the applicable State statute an order authorizing, or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications by investigative or law enforcement of officers having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of the commission of the offense of murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, or dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana or other dangerous drugs, or other crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year, designated in any applicable State statute authorizing such interception, or any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses. (3) Any attorney for the Government (as such term is defined for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure) may authorize an application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant, in conformity with section 2518 of this title, an order authorizing or approving the interception of electronic communications by an investigative or law enforcement officer having responsibility for the investigation of the offense s to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of any Federal felony. { 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication (1) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom may disclose such contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer to the extent that such disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure. (2) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by an means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom any use such contents to the extent such use is appropriate to the proper performance of his official duties. (3) Any person who has received, by any means authorized by this chapter, any information concerning a wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter may disclose the contents of that communication or such derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any proceeding held under the authority of the United States of of any State or political subdivision thereof. (4) No otherwise privileged wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of this chapter shall lose its privileged character. (5) When an investigative or law enforcement officer, while engaged in intercepting wire or oral communications in the manner authorized herein, intercepts wire, oral, or electronic communications relating to offenses other than those specified in the order of authorization or approval, the contents thereof, and evidence derived therefrom, may be disclosed or used as provided in subsections (1) and (2) of this section. Such contents and any evidence derived therefrom may be used under subsection (3) of this section when authorized or approved by a judge of competent jurisdiction where such judge finds on subsequent application that the contents were otherwise intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Such application shall be made as soon as practicable. { 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) Each application for an order authorizing or approving the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge of competent jurisdiction and shall state the applicant's authority to make such application. Each application shall include the following information: (a) the identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer making the application, and the officer authorizing the application; (b) a full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant, to justify his belief that an order should be issued, including (i) details as to the particular offense that has been, is being, or is about to be committed, (ii) except as provided in subsection (11), a particular description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communication is to be intercepted, (iii) a particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted, (iv) the identity of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted; (c) a full and complete statement as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (d) a statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained. If the nature of the investigation is such that the authorization for interception should not automatically terminate when the described type of communication has been first obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur thereafter; (e) a full and complete statement of the facts concerning all previous applications known to the individual authorizing and making the application, made to any judge for authorization to intercept, or for approval of interceptions of, wire, oral, or electronic communications involving any of the same persons, facilities or places specified in the application; and (f) where the application is for the extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such results. (2) The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional testimony or documentary evidence in support of the application. (3) Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as requested or as modified, authorizing or approving interception of wire, oral or electronic communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the court in which the judge is sitting (and outside that jurisdiction but within the United States in the case of a mobile interception device authorized by a Federal court within such jurisdiction) if the judge determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that- (a) there is probable cause for belief that an individual is committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense enumerated in section 2516 of this chapter; (b) there is probable cause for brief that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such interception; (c) normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (d) except as provided in subsection (11), there is probable cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where the wire, oral, or electronic communications are to be intercepted are being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission of such offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by such person. (4) Each order authorizing or approving the interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall specify- (a) the identity of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted; (b) the nature and location of the communications facilities as to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted; (c) a particular description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates; (d) the identity of the agency authorized to intercept the communications, and of the person authorizing the application; and (e) the period of time during which such interception is authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception shall automatically terminate when the described communication has been first obtained. An order authorizing the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall, upon request of the applicant, direct that a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or other person shall furnish the applicant forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that such service provider, landlord, custodian, or person is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted. Any provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or other person furnishing such facilities or technical assistance shall be compensated therefor by the applicant for reasonable express incurred in providing such facilities or assistance. (5) No order entered under this section may authorize or approve the interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization nor in any event longer than thirty days. Such thirty-day period begins on the earlier of the day on which the investigative or law enforcement officer first begins to conduct an interception under the order or ten days after the order is entered. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with subsection (1) of this section and the court making the findings required by subsection (3) of this section. The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and in no event for longer than thirty days. Every order and extension thereof shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize the interception of communications not otherwise, subject to interception under this chapter, and must terminate upon attainment of the authorized objective, or in any event in thirty days. In the event the intercepted communications is in a code or foreign language, and an expert in that foreign language or code is not reasonably available during the interception period, minimization may be accomplished as soon as practicable after such interception. An interception under this chapter may be conducted in whole or in part by Government personnel, or by an individual operating under a contract with the Government, acting under the supervision of an investigative or law enforcement officer authorized to conduct the interception. (6) Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to this chapter, the order may require reports to be made to the judge who issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of the authorized objective and the need for continued interception. Such reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require. (7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any investigative or law enforcement officer, specially designated by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, or by the principal prosecuting attorney of any State or subdivision thereof acting pursuant of that State, who reasonably determines that- (a) an emergency situation exists that involves- (i) immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to any person; (ii) conspiratorial activities threatening the national security interest; or (iii) conspiratorial activities characteristic of organized crime, that requires a wire, oral, or electronic communication to be intercepted before an order authorizing such interception can, with due diligence, be obtained, and (b) there are grounds upon which an order could be entered under this chapter to authorize such interception. may intercept such wire, oral, or electronic communication if an application for an order approving the interception is made in accordance with this section within forty-eight hours after the interception has occurred, or begins to occur. In the absence of an order, such interception shall immediately terminate when the communication sought is obtained or when the application for the order is denied, whichever is earlier. In the event such application for approval is denied, or in any other case where the interception is terminated without an order having been issued, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter, and an inventory shall be served as provided for in subsection (d) of this section on the person named in the application. (8)(a) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted by any means authorized by this chapter shall, if possible, be recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this subsection shall be done in such a way as will protect the recording from editing or other alterations. Immediately upon the expiration of the period of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available to the judge issuing such order and sealed under this directions. Custody of the recordings shall be wherever the judge orders. They shall not be destroyed except upon an order of the issuing or denying judge and in any event shall be kept for ten years. Duplicate recordings may be made for use or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsections (2) and (2) of section 2517 of this chapter for investigations. The presence of the seal provided for by this section, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence thereof, shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom under subsection (3) of section 2517. (b) Applications made and orders granted under this chapter shall be sealed by the judge. Custody of the applications and orders shall be wherever the judge directs. Such applications and orders shall be disclosed only upon a showing of good cause before a judge of competent jurisdiction and shall not be destroyed except on order of the issuing or denying judge, and in any event shall be kept for ten years. (c) Any violation of the provisions of this subsection may be punished as contempt of the issuing or denying judge. (d) Within a reasonable time but not later than ninety days after the filing of an application for an order of approval under section 2518(7)(b) which is denied or the termination of the period of an order or extensions thereof, the issuing or denying judge shall cause to be served, on the persons named in the order or the application, and such other parties to intercepted communications as the judge may determine in his discretion that is in the interest of justice, and inventory which shall include notice of- (1) the fact of the entry of the order or the application; (2) the date of the entry and the period of authorized, approved or disapproved interception, or the denial of the application, and (3) the fact that during the period wire, oral, or electronic communications were or were not intercepted. The judge, upon the filing of a motion, may in his discretion make available to such person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communications, applications and orders as the judge determines to be in the interest of justice. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a judge of competent jurisdiction the serving of the inventory required by this subsection may be postponed. (9) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted pursuant to this chapter or evidence derived therefrom shall not be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in a Federal or State court unless each party, not less then ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, has been furnished with a copy of the court order, and accompanying application, under which the interception was authorized or approved. This ten-day period may be waived by the judge if he finds that it was not possible to furnish the party with the above information ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in receiving such information. (10)(a) Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing, or proceeding in or before the any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any wire or oral communication intercepted pursuant to this chapter, or evidence derived therefrom, on the grounds that- (i) the communication was unlawfully intercepted; (ii) the order of authorization or approval under which it was intercepted is insufficient on its face; or (iii) the interception was not made in conformity with the order of authorization or approval. Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or proceeding unless there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of the grounds of the motion. If the motion is granted, the contents of the intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter. The judge, upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in his discretion make available to the aggrieved person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communication or evidence derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice. (b) In addition to any other right to appeal, the United States shall have the right to appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made under paragraph (a) of this subsection, or the denial of an application for an order of approval, if the United States attorney shall certify to the judge or other official granting such motion or denying such application the the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay. Such appeal shall be taken within thirty days after the date the order was entered and shall be diligently prosecuted. (c) The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter with respect to the interception of electronic communications are the only judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter involving such communications. (11) The requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of the section relating to the specification of the facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be intercepted do not apply if- (a) in the case of an application with respect to the interception of an oral communication- (i) the application is by a federal investigative or law enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney General; (ii) the application contains a full and complete statement as to why such specification is not practical and identifies the person committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted; and (iii) the judge finds that such specification is not practical; and (b) in the case of an application with respect to a wire or electronic communication- (i) the application is by a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, and Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney General; (ii) the application identifies the person believed to be committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted and the applicant makes a showing of a purpose, on the part of that person, to thwart interception by changing facilities; and (iii) the judge finds that such purpose has been adequately shown. (12) An interception of a communication under an order with respect to which the requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of this section do not apply by reason of subsection (11) shall not begin until the facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be intercepted is ascertained by the person implementing the interception order. A provider of wire or electronic communications service that has received an order as provided for in subsection (11)(b) may move the court to modify or quash the order on the ground that its assistance with respect to the interception cannot be performed in a timely or reasonable fashion. The court, upon notice to the government, shall decide such a motion expeditiously. { 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) Within thirty days after the expiration of an order (or each extension thereof) entered under section 2518, or the denial of an order approving an interception, the issuing or denying judge shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts- (a) the fact that an order or extension was applied for; (b) the kind of order or extension was applied for (including whether or not the order was an order with respect to which the requirements of sections 2518(1)(b)(ii) and 2581(3)(d) of this title did not apply by reason of section 2518(11) of title); (c) the fact that the order or extension was granted as applied for, was modified, or was denied; (d) the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the number and duration of any extensions of the order; (e) the offense specified in the order or application, or extension or an order; (f) the identity of the applying investigative or law enforcement officer and agency making the application and the person authorizing the application; and (g) the nature of the facilities from which or the place where communications were to be intercepted. (2) In January of each year the Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General, or the principal prosecuting attorney of a State, or the principal prosecuting attorney for any political subdivision of a State, shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts- (a) the information required by paragraphs (a) through (g) of subsection (1) of this section with respect to each application for an order or extension made during the preceding calendar year; (b) a general description of the interceptions made under such order or extension, including (i) the approximate nature and frequency of incriminating communications intercepted, (ii) the approximate nature and frequency of other communications intercepted, (iii) the approximate number of persons whose communications were intercepted, and (iv) the approximate nature, amount, and cost of the manpower and other resources used in the interceptions; (c) the number of arrests resulting from interceptions made under such order or extension, and the offenses for which arrests were made; (d) the number of trials resulting from such interceptions; (e) the number of motions to suppress made with respect to such interceptions, and the number granted or denied; (f) the number of convictions resulting from such interceptions and the offenses for which the convictions were obtained and a general assessment of the importance of the interceptions; and (g) the information required by paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection with respect to orders or extensions obtained in a preceding calendar year. (3) In April of each year the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall transmit to the Congress a full and complete report concerning the number of applications for orders authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications pursuant to this chapter and the number of orders and extensions granted or denied pursuant to this chapter during the preceding calendar year. Such report shall include a summary and analysis of the data required to be filed with the Administrative Office by subsections (1) and (2) of this section. The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is authorized to issue binding regulations dealing with the content and form of the reports required to be filed by subsections (1) and (2) of this section. { 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized (a) IN GENERAL,--Except as provided in section 2511(2)(a)(ii), any person whose wire, oral, or electronic communication is intercepted, disclosed, or intentionally used in violation of this chapter may in a civil action recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation such relief as may be appropriate. (b) RELIEF.--In an action under this section, appropriate relief includes- (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may be appropriate; (2) damages under subsection (c) and punitive damages in appropriate cases; and (3) a reasonable attorney's fee and other litigation costs reasonably incurred. (c) COMPUTATION OF DAMAGES.--(1) In an action under this section, if the conduct is in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted or if the communication is a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, then the court shall assess damages as follows: (A) If the person who engaged in that conduct has not previously been enjoined under section 2511(5) and has not been found liable in a prior civil action under this section, the court shall assess the greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or statutory damages of not less than $50 and not more than $500. (B) If, on one prior occasion, the person who engaged in that conduct has been enjoined under section 2511(5) or has been found liable in a civil action under this section, the court shall assess the greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or statutory damages of not less than $100 and not more than $1,000. (2) In any other action under this section, the court may assess as damages whichever is the greater of- (A) the sum of the actual damages suffered by the plaintiff and any profits made by the violator as a result of the violation; or (B) statutory damages of whichever is the greater of $100 a day for each day of violation or $10,000. (d) DEFENSE.--A good faith reliance on- (1) a court warrant or order, a grand jury subpoena, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization; (2) a request of an investigative or law enforcement officer under section 2518(7) of this title; or (3) a good faith determination that section 2511(3) of this title permitted the conduct complained of; is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law. (e) LIMITATION.--A civil action under this section may not be commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first has a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation. { 2521. Injunction against illegal interception Whenever it shall appear that any person is engaged or is about to engage in any act which constitutes or will constitute a felony violation of this chapter, the Attorney General may initiate a civil action in a district court of the United States to enjoin such violation. The court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination of such an action, and may, at any time before final determination, enter such a restraining order or prohibition, or take such other action, as is warranted to prevent a continuing and substantial injury to the United States or to any person or class of persons for whose protection the action is brought. A proceeding under this section is governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, except that, if an indictment has been returned against the respondent, discovery is governed by the federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. CHAPTER 121- STORED WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONAL RECORDS ACCESS Sec. 2701. Unlawful access to stored communications. 2702. Disclosure of contents. 2703. Requirements for governmental access. 2704. Backup preservation. 2705. Delayed notice. 2706. Cost reimbursement. 2707. Civil action. 2708. Exclusivity of remedies. 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional records. 2710. Definitions 2701. Unlawful access to stored communications (a) OFFENSE.- Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section whoever- (1) intentionally accesses without authorization a facility through which an electronic communication service is provided; or (2) intentionally exceeds an authorization to access that facility; and thereby obtains, alters, or prevents authorized access to a wire or electronic communication while it is in electronic storage in such system shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section. (b) PUNISHMENT.- The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of this section is- (1) if the offense is committed for purposes of commercial advantage, malicious destruction or damage, or private commercial gain- (A) a fine of not more than $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of a first offense under this subparagraph; and (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, for any subsequent offense under this subparagraph; and (2) a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than six months, or both, in any case. (c) EXCEPTIONS.- Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized- (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service; (2) by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user; or (3) in section 2703, 2704 or 2518 of this title. { 2702. Disclosure of contents (a) PROHIBITIONS.- Except as provided in subsection (b)- (1) a person or entity operating an electronic communication service to the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of a communication while in electronic storage by that service; and (2) a person or entity providing remote computing service to the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of any communication which is carried or maintained on that service- (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from (or created by means of computer processing of communications received by means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such service; and (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing any services other than storage or computer processing. (b) EXCEPTIONS.- A person or entity may divulge the contents of a communication- (1) to an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient; (2) as otherwise authorized in section 2516, 2511(2)(a), or 2703 of this title; (3) with the lawful consent of the originator or an addressee or intended recipient of such communication, or the subscriber in the case of remote computing service; (4) to a person employed or authorized or whose facilities are used to forward such communication to its destination; (5) as may be necessarily incident to the rendition of the service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service; or (6) to a law enforcement agency, if such contents- (A) were inadvertently obtained by the service provider; and (B) appear to pertain to the commission of a crime. { 2703. Requirements for governmental access (a) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN ELECTRONIC STORAGE.- A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communication service of the contents of an electronic communication, that is in electronic storage in an electronic communications system for one hundred and eighty days or less, only pursuant to a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant. A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communications services of the contents of an electronic communication that has been in storage in an electronic communications system for more than one hundred and eighty days by the means available under subsection (b) of this section. (b) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN A REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1) A governmental entity may require a provider of remote computing service to disclose the contents of any electronic communication to which this paragraph is made applicable by paragraph (2) of this subsection- (A) without required notice to the subscriber or customer, if the governmental entity obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; or (B) with prior notice from the governmental entity to the subscriber or customer if the governmental entity- (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; or (ii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of this section; except that delayed notice may be given pursuant to section 2705 of this title. (2) Paragraph (1) is applicable with respect to any electronic communication that is held or maintained on that service- (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from (or created by means of computer processing of communications received by means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such remote computing service; and (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing any services other than storage or computer processing. (c) RECORDS CONCERNING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE OR REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service may disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to any person other than a governmental entity. (B) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service shall disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to a governmental entity only when the governmental entity- (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute, or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; (ii) obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; (iii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of this section; or (iv) has the consent of the subscriber or customer to such disclosure. (2) A governmental entity receiving records or information under this subsection is not required to provide notice to a subscriber or customer. (d) REQUIREMENTS FOR COURT ORDER.- A court order for disclosure under subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall issue only if the governmental entity shows that there is reason to believe the contents of a wire or electronic communication, or the records or other information sought, are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry. In the case of a State governmental authority, such a court order shall not issue if prohibited by the law of such State. A court issuing an order pursuant to this section, on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify such order, if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in nature or compliance with such order otherwise would cause an undue burden on such provider. (e) NO CAUSE OF ACTION AGAINST A PROVIDER DISCLOSING INFORMATION UNDER THIS CHAPTER.- No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order, warrant, subpoena or certification under this chapter. { 2704. Backup preservation (a) BACKUP PRESERVATION.- (1) A governmental entity acting under section 2703(b)(2) may include in its subpoena or court order a requirement that the service provider to whom the request is directed create a backup copy of the contents of the electronic communications sought in order to preserve those communications. Without notifying the subscriber or customer of such subpoena or court order, such service provider shall create such backup copy as soon as practicable consistent with its regular business practices and shall confirm to the governmental entity that such backup copy has been made. Such backup copy shall be created within two business days after receipt by the service provider of the subpoena or court order. (2) Notice to the subscriber or customer shall be made by the governmental entity within three days after receipt of such confirmation, unless such notice is delayed pursuant to section 2705(a). (3) The service provider shall not destroy such backup copy until the later of -- (A) the delivery of the information; or (B) the resolution of any proceedings (including appeals of any proceeding) concerning the government's subpoena or court order. (4) The service provider shall release such backup copy to the requesting governmental entity no sooner than fourteen days after the governmental entity's notice to the subscriber or customer if such service provider -- (A) has not received notice from the subscriber or customer that the subscriber or customer has challenged the governmental entity's request; and (B) has not initiated proceedings to challenge the request of the governmental entity. (5) A governmental entity may seek to require the creation of a backup copy under subsection (a)(1) of this section if in its sole discretion such entity determines that there is reason to believe that notification under section 2703 of this title of the existence of the subpoena or court order may result in destruction of or tampering with evidence. This determination is not subject to challenge by the subscriber or customer or service provider. (b) CUSTOMER CHALLENGES -- (1) Within fourteen days after notice by the governmental entity to the subscriber or customer under subsection (a)(2) of this section, such subscriber or customer may file a motion to quash such subpoena or vacate such court order, with copies served upon the governmental entity and with written notice of such challenge to the service provider. A motion to vacate a court order shall be filed in the court which issued such order. A motion to quash a subpoena shall be filed in the appropriate United States district court or State court. Such motion or application shall contain an affidavit or sworn statement -- (A) stating that the applicant is a customer or subscriber to the service from which the contents of electronic communications maintained for him have been sought; and (B) stating the applicant's reasons for believing that the records sought are not relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry or that there has not been substantial inquiry or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter in some other respect. (2) Service shall be made under this section upon a governmental entity by delivering or mailing by registered or certified mail a copy of the papers to the person, office, or department specified in the notice which the customer has received pursuant to this chapter. For the purposes of this section, the term "delivery" has the meaning given that term in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. (3) If the court finds that the customer has complied with paragraphs (1) an (2) of this subsection, the court shall order the governmental entity to file a sworn response, which may be filed in camera if the governmental entity includes in its response the reasons which make in camera review appropriate. If the court is unable to determine the motion or application on the basis of the parties' initial allegations and response, the court may conduct such additional proceedings as it deems appropriate. All such proceedings shall be completed and the motion or application decided as soon as practicable after the filing of the governmental entity's response. (4) If the court finds that the applicant is not the subscriber or customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are maintained, or that there is a reason to believe that the law enforcement inquiry is legitimate and that the communications sought are relevant to that inquiry, it shall deny the motion or application and order such process enforced. If the court finds that the applicant is the subscriber or customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are maintained, and that there is not a reason to believe that the communications sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry, or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter, it shall order the process quashed. (5) A court order denying a motion or application under this section shall not be deemed a final order and no interlocutory appeal may be taken therefrom by the customer. { 2705. Delayed notice (a) DELAY OF NOTIFICATION --(1) A governmental entity acting under section 2703(b) of this title may -- (A) where a court order is sought, include in the application a request, which the court shall grant, for an order delaying the notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed ninety days, if the court determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the court order may have an adverse result described in paragraph (2) of this subsection; or (B) where an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena is obtained, delay the notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed ninety days upon the execution of a written certification of a supervisory official that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the subpoena may have an adverse result described in paragraph (2) of this subsection. (2) An adverse result for the purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection is -- (A) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual; (B) flight from prosecution; (C) destruction of or tampering with evidence; (D) intimidation of potential witnesses; or (E) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial. (3) The governmental entity shall maintain a true copy of certification under paragraph (1)(B). (4) Extensions of the delay of notification provided in section 2703 of up to ninety days each may be granted by the court upon application, or by certification by a governmental entity, but only in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. (5) Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification under paragraph (1) or (4) of this subsection, the governmental entity shall serve upon, or deliver by registered or first-class mail to, the customer or subscriber a copy of the process or request together with notice that -- (A) states with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry; and (B) informs such customer or subscriber -- (i) that information maintained for such customer or subscriber by the service provider named in such process or request was supplied to or requested by that governmental authority and the date on which the supplying or request took place. (ii) that notification of such customer or subscriber was delayed; (iii) what governmental entity or court made the certification or determination pursuant to which that delay was made; and (iv) which provision of this chapter allowed such delay. (6) As used in this subsection, the term "supervisory official" means the investigative agent in charge or assistant investigative agent in charge or an equivalent of an investigating agency's headquarters or regional office, or the chief prosecuting attorney or the first assistant prosecuting attorney or an equivalent of a prosecuting attorney's headquarters or regional office. (b) PRECLUSION OF NOTICE TO SUBJECT OF GOVERNMENTAL ACCESS. -- A governmental entity acting under section 2703, when it is not required to notify the subscriber or customer under section 2703(b)(1), or to the extent that it may delay such notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may apply to a court for an order commanding a provider of electronic communications service or remote computing service to whom a warrant, subpoena, or court order is directed, for such period as the court deems appropriate, not to notify any other person of the existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order. The court shall enter such an order if it determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order will results in -- (1) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual; (2) flight from prosecution; (3) destruction of or tampering with evidence; (4) intimidation of potential witnesses; or (5) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial. { 2706. Cost reimbursement (a) PAYMENT -- Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), a governmental entity obtaining the contents of communications, records, or other information under section 2702, 2703, or 2704 of this title shall pay to the person or entity assembling or providing such information a fee for reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been directly incurred in searching for, assembling, reproducing, or otherwise providing such information. Such reimbursable costs shall include any costs due to necessary disruption of normal operations of any electronic communication service or remote computing service in which such information may be stored. (b) AMOUNT -- The amount of the fee provided by subsection (a) shall be as mutually agreed by the governmental entity and the person or entity providing the information, or in the absence of agreement, shall be as determined by the court which issued the order for production of such information (or the court before which a criminal prosecution relating to such information would be brought, if no court order was issued for production of the information). (c) The requirement of subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to records or other information maintained by a communications common carrier that relate to telephone toll records and telephone listings obtained under section 2703 of this title. The court may, however, order a payment as described in subsection (a) if the court determines the information required is unusually voluminous in nature or otherwise caused an undue burden on the provider. { 2707. Civil action (a) CAUSE OF ACTION. -- Except as provided in section 2703(e), any provider of electronic communication service, subscriber, or customer aggrieved by any violation of this chapter in which the conduct constituting the violation is engaged in with a knowing or intentional state of mind may, in a civil action, recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation such relief as may be appropriate. (b) RELIEF. -- IN a civil action under this section, appropriate relief includes -- (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may be appropriate; (2) damages under subsection (c); and 1/2 of (b), all of (c) & (d) omitted see p. 514,447 (e) LIMITATION. -- A civil action under this section may not be commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first discovered or had a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation. { 2708. Exclusivity of remedies The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter are the only judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter. { 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional records (a) DUTY TO PROVIDE. -- A wire or electronic communication service provider shall comply with a request for subscriber information and toll billing records information, or electronic communication transactional records in its custody or possession made by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation under subsection (b) of this section. (b) REQUIRED CERTIFICATION. -- The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or an individual within the Federal Bureau of Investigation designated for this purpose by the Director) may request any such information and records if the Director (or the Director's designee) certifies in writing to the wire or electronic communication service provider to which the request is made that -- (1) the information sought is relevant to an authorized foreign counterintelligence investigation; and (2) there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe that the person or entity to whom the information sought pertains is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801). (c) PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN DISCLOSURE. -- No wire or electronic communication service provider, or officer, employee, or agent thereof, shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained access to information or records under this section. (d) DISSEMINATION BY BUREAU. -- The Federal Bureau of Investigation may disseminate information and records obtained under this section only as provided in guidelines approved by the Attorney General for foreign intelligence collection and foreign counterintelligence investigations conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and, with respect to dissemination to an agency of the United States, only if such information is clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency. (e) REQUIREMENT THAT CERTAIN CONGRESSIONAL BODIES BE INFORMED. -- On a semi-annual basis the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate concerning all requests made under subsection (b) of this section. { 2710. Definitions for chapter As used in this chapter - (1) the terms defined in section 2510 of this title have, respectively, the definitions given such terms in that section; and (2) the term "remote computing service" means the provision to the public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic communications system. CHAPTER 205-SEARCHES AND SEIZURES Sec. 3101. Effect of rules of court--Rules * * * 3117. Mobile tracking devices. * * * { 3117. Mobile tracking devices (a). IN GENERAL.--If a court is empowered to ussue a warrant or other order for the installation of a mobile tracking device, such order may authorize the use of that device within the jurisdiction of the court, and outside that jurisdiction if the device is installed in that jurisdiction. (b). DEFINITION.--As used in this section, the term "tracking device" means an electronic or mechanical device which permits the tracking of the movement of a person or object. CHAPTER 206-PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP TRACE DEVICES Sec. 3121. General prohibition on pen register on trap and trace device use; exception. 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device. 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap or trace device. 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device. 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices. 3126. Definitions for chapter. { 3121. General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use; exception (a) In General.-Except as provided in this section, no person may install or use a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order under section 3123 of this title or under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). (b) Exception.-The prohibition of subsection (a) does not apply with respect to the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device by a provider of electronic or wire communication service- (1) relating to the operation, maintenance, and testing of a wire or electronic communication service or to the protection of the rights or property of such provider, or to the protection of users of that service from abuse of service or unlawful use of service; or (2) to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of service; or with the consent of the user of that service. (c) Penalty.-Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. { 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) Application.-(1) An attorney for the Government may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction. (2) Unless prohibited by State law, a State investigative law enforcement officer may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction of such State. (b) Contents Of Application.-An application under subsection (a) of this section shall include- (1) the identity of the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer making the application and the identity of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and (2) a certification by the applicant that the information likely to be obtained is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by that agency. { 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) In General.-Upon an application made under section 3122 of this title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device within the jurisdiction of the court if the court finds that the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation. (b) Contents Of Order.-An order issued under this section- (1) shall specify- (A) the identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in whose name is listed the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached; (B) the identity, if known, of the person who is the subject of the criminal investigation; (C) the number and, if known, physical location of the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and trace order; and (D) a statement of the offense to which the information likely to be obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device relates; and (2) shall direct, upon the request of the applicant, the furnishing of information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section 3124 of this title. (c) Time Period And Extensions.-(1) An order issued under this section shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device for a period not to exceed sixty days. (2) Extensions of such an order may be granted, but only upon an application for an order under section 3122 of this title and upon the judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section. The period of extension shall be for a period not to exceed sixty days. (d) Non-disclosure Of Existence Of Pen Register Or A Trap And Trace Device.-An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device shall direct that- (1) the order be sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and (2) the person owning or leasing the line to which the pen register or a trap and trace device is attached, or who has been ordered by the court to provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to the listed subscriber, or to any other person, unless or until otherwise ordered by the court. { 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) Pen Registers.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to install and use a pen register under this chapter, a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. (b) Trap And Trace Device.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to receive the results of a trap and trace device under this chapter, a provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall install such device forthwith on the appropriate line and shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer all additional information, facilities and technical assistance including installation and operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the results of the trap and trace device shall be furnished to the officer of a law enforcement agency, designated in the court, at reasonable intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order. (c) Compensation.-A provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such facilities and assistance. (d) No Cause Of Action Against A Provider Disclosing Information Under This Chapter.-No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of a wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order under this chapter. (e) Defense.-A good faith reliance on a court order, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law. { 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices The Attorney General shall annually report to Congress on the number of pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice. { 3126. Definitions for chapter As used in this chapter- (1) the terms "wire communication", "electronic communication", and "electronic communication service" have the meanings set forth for such terms in section 2510 of this title; (2) the term "court of competent jurisdiction" means- (A) a district court of the United States (including a magistrate of such a court) or a United States Court of Appeals; or (B) a court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State authorized by the law of that State to enter orders authorizing the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device; (3) the term "pen register" means a device which records or decodes electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise transmitted on the telephone line to which such device is attached, but such term does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to billing, for communications services provided by such provider or any device used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business; (4) the term "trap and trace" device means a device which captures the incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was transmitted; (5) the term "attorney for the Government" has the meaning given such term for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and (6) the term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States. =============================================================================== A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA =============================================================================== WHEN IS LISTENING TO THE RADIO A CRIME? By FRANK TERRANELLA The federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act has turned many radio listeners into criminals. The problem is, most of them don't know about it. I will attempt here to describe in very non-legalistic and general terms (extremely difficult for a lawyer), exactly what listening is legal and what is illegal. Section 2511 of the Federal Criminal Statutes (18 U.S.C.) is where most of the action is in this field. The statute is primarily a wiretap and bug statute and only recently has been expanded to include radio listening. I will not be discussing the provisions dealing with oral communications or wiretaps and bugging devices here. The statute starts out by saying that it is illegal to intentionally intercept, disclose or use the contents of any wire or electronic communication. The statute then goes on to carve out exceptions to this general rule. It is important to understand what the law means by wire or electronic communication. A wire communication is any communication over a telephone or other wire. However, the definition specifically includes cellular telephones and excludes cordless telephones (even though both involve the use of radio and wire transmission). An electronic communication includes all radio transmissions, but excludes cordless telephones and pagers. After making a blanket prohibition of intercepting all electronic (i.e. radio) transmissions, the statute lists the exceptions. The first exception is that it is legal to listen to all radio transmissions which are "readily accessible to the general public." This term is defined in the statute to mean radio signals which are (1) not encrypted, scrambled, carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (2) not transmitted over a common carrier communications system (such as the phone company); (3) not special transmissions such as point-to-point private relay transmissions for the broadcast services, not meant for reception by the general public. The next exception to the general rule is that it is legal to listen to all radio broadcasts "relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress." The statute also says that it is legal to listen to a broadcast by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense, private land mobile or public safety communications system, including police and fire, which are readily accessible to the general public. It is also legal to listen to transmissions on the amateur bands, citizens band or general mobile radio services as well as any marine or aeronautical communications system and cordless telephone transmission. Finally, it is not illegal to intercept satellite transmissions of cable programming as long as the transmission is not encrypted, there is no monetary gain by the viewer, and there is no marketing system available (meaning no one is selling the rights to view the programming via satellite). There is also an interesting section of the statute which may provide a loophole for lawyers defending clients charged with a violation of this law. The statute says that it is not illegal to intercept a radio transmission which is causing interference with any lawfully operating station (including ham radio operators), or is causing interference with any consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of the interference. I can see a lawyer arguing that his client was only listening to that cellular telephone transmission because it was interfering with his client's reception on the 23 centimeter band. After all of the exceptions are carved out, the bottom line is that the only radio frequency transmissions which are off limits are those which are not readily accessible to the general public, as that term is defined in the statute. The definition of "readily accessible to the general public" is stated in the statute as follows: (a) not scrambled or encrypted; (b) not transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of such communication; (c) not carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (d) not transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system communication; (e) not transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25; subpart D,E, or F of part 74; or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio. The first two of these are no problem. If the signal is scrambled, law-abiding DXers will leave it alone. Paragraph (c) begins the real restrictions on DXers. Under the statutory definition, signals on a subcarrier, such as the types being experimented with in television at the moment, are not readily accessible to the general public and are not permitted listening. The next section poses the greatest problem for DXers. Under the definition, any signal, other than a tone, which is transmitted by a common carrier is off limits. The FCC defines a common carrier as "any person engaged in rendering communication service for hire to the public." (47 CFR 21.2) The statutory definition given in 47 U.S.C. 153(h) is a bit more specific in that it specifically excludes radio broadcasters who, through sale of commercials, do render a communication service for hire. But, even with the removal of broadcasters, this definition is very broad and will include, beyond obvious services such as cellular telephone, just about every utility station on the face of the earth. The types of radio transmissions made off limits to DXers by paragraph (e) are certain satellite communications, certain microwave communications, and auxiliary stations to broadcasters used for such things as feeds from the mobile van back to the studio or from the studio to the transmitter. The frequencies of these services are all above 1 Gigahertz except for the bands 928-929 MHz and 944-960 Mhz. The exception to this is the frequency assignment given to remote broadcast pickup stations under subpart D of part 74. This service, which is off-limits to DXers, is assigned bits and pieces of the radio spectrum from 1606 kHz through 455.925 Mhz. Twenty-six frequencies in the shortwave bands are allocated to this service. The allocations are scattered between 25.87 Mhz and 26.47 Mhz, but unless you have a copy of the FCC Rules and Regulations, there is no easy way for a DXer to know that listening to these transmissions is a federal offense. This is precisely why I maintain that this law is unenforceable. In order for a prosecution under 18 U.S.C. 2511 to be successful, the government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the DXer intentionally intercepted a protected transmission. Since even attorneys are unsure what frequencies are off-limits, how can the government hope to prove that a DXer who happens upon one of these federally-legislated minefields in the radio spectrum, actually intended to do so? It should be noted that the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 605) has not been repealed by the new law. It is still illegal, as it has been since at least 1934, to divulge the contents of any transmission except for general broadcast stations, amateur radio and CB transmissions, and transmissions relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress. A recent case (Edwards v. State Farm Insurance Co., 833 F.2d 535) concluded that in order to prove an offense under this statute, the speaker must have held a subjective expectation of privacy that was justifiable under the circumstances. I hope that this brief trip through the legal maze of communications privacy has been useful. I can see the day coming when some industrious lawyer, defending a client of means, decides to challenge this unjust law. The basis is very simple. Just as there is no Fourth Amendment right of privacy where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, so too there should not be a statutory right of privacy where anyone with a receiver can listen in. To use an analogy, the providers of cellular service want the right to parade down Main Street with no clothes on and then prosecute anyone who looks. This is simply unfair and unrealistic. And beyond that, our First Amendment freedom of speech has a corollary freedom to be informed and to gather information. This freedom must extend to the spoken as well as the printed word, as long as no reasonable expectations of privacy are violated. Anyone with a receiver should be entitled to hear anything which is broadcast in the clear over the "public" airwaves for the simple reason that it is not reasonable for anyone to transmit in this manner and expect this transmission to be private. An expectation of privacy can only be achieved by scrambling the signal, not by governmental decree. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FRANK TERRANELLA is an attorney, ham radio operator and short wave listener (not necessarily in that order). =============================================================================== Modifying two scanners for cellular reception =============================================================================== The word "modifying" in this case is wrong. That implies that there is a _conversion_ process whereby you can cause your scanner to suddenly begin receiving cellular mobile telephone calls. This is wrong thinking. A scanner that is _designed_ to receive those frequencies above 512 MHz can have those frequencies RESTORED (_sometimes_). A scanner that covers from 30-512 MHz can NEVER receive 800-900 MHz frequencies without the aid of an external RF converter. Many times you will see messages from people asking how to modify such-and-such a receiver to pick up CMT. The sad truth is, the answer is $$$, as that's what it will take to get a new scanner that covers those frequencies. Some older scanners (most of them in fact) have no modifications so that they will cover these frequencies. There may be cosmetic changes, such as the addition of an S-meter, or squelch or tone improvement, but there will never, ever be anything that can be done to most of them to make them cover CMT. The PRO-2004/2005/34 receivers originally had those frequencies, but had them blocked out. Restoring those frequencies was simply a matter of _unblocking_ them. There was really no "modifying" taking place. If a scanner was never intended to cover 800 MHz, it never will. You can get RF converters that will convert 800-912 MHz down to 400-512 MHz, however, and these should work on all scanners. MOST SCANNERS CANNOT BE MODIFIED OR CHANGED TO RECEIVE THE CMT FREQUENCIES. There are a handful of exceptions to this. It started out with the Realistic PRO-2004 and the PRO-34, and went to the PRO-2005. To restore CMT for the 2004, open the radio and turn it upside down. You'll see a large metal box. Carefully remove the cover. Find diode D-513. It may be in the line of diodes, or it may be on the bottom of the PC board, in which case you'll have to VERY carefully remove the board. In either case, the cure is the same. Clip one leg of D-513 to restore CMT frequencies. If you're careful, you can unsolder this diode and place it in the empty spot at D-510. That will give you 400 channels instead of 300. For the PRO-2005, the procedure is the same, except you clip one leg of D-502 to restore cellular reception. In the 2004, put a 1N914 diode in D-514 and you'll increase your scan/search speed by 25%. Watch your diode polarity! For the PRO-2005, it's D-501, which is on the display board behind the keyboard. Adding D-504 to the PRO-2005 will DELETE 66-88 MHz coverage -- TV channels, radio control, etc., so don't add D-504!!!! As far as is known, there is no channel expansion capability on the order of the PRO-2004 for the PRO-2005. 400 channels appears to be its limit. The PRO-34 handheld can also have CMT restored, and all can be modified to receive 6,400 channels (3,200 on the PRO-34), but that's beyond the capability of this article. I could have typed in the directions for restoring CMT to the PRO-34, but you really need pictures to go with the modification. The original article was in "Popular Communications." All these are described in great detail in the "Scanner Modification Handbook" by Bill Cheek, available from CRB Research Books, Inc., PO Box 56, Commack, New York, 11725. It's $17.95 + $2.00 postage and handling, but is well worth the price due to the treasure trove of info that's in it. =============================================================================== How to discover other scanner modifications =============================================================================== HOW TO 'DISCOVER' THOSE NEAT RADIO MODIFICATIONS How do the people that discover modifications to radios go about finding them? Good question! The first rule of thumb is to obtain service manuals, as they contain more than just troubleshooting information. For example, the alignment procedure outlined in the Regency K500 and M400 service manuals describes how to circumvent the frequency limit checking firmware, which allows out of band frequency programming. The Uniden 200/205XLT service manual describes a keyboard sequence that clears most of the 200 memory channels, and loads the others with bizarre test frequencies. Service manuals often describe the circuit changes in models intended for export to other countries. This can reveal features disabled for some customers but enabled for others. A good library of IC and semiconductor data books is very helpful, although radio service manuals can also include IC internal diagrams. Old TTL databooks are no longer enough. The transition to surface mount components in radios like the Uniden/Bearcat 760XLT is motivation for acquiring data books for leadless components. Although some modifications involve discovery of "hidden" features, many others involve designing new circuitry or applying old circuitry from another radio. I can't claim credit for many "add/delete a diode" modifications, but here are the factors that accounted for a few other modifications. ***** Recognize Common Radio Circuits ***** Modification: Improve the squelch on the PRO-24, PRO-2004, 800XLT, etc. Motivation: Unsatisfied with stock performance. Almost all modern scanners use MC3357, MC3359, or Japanese pin equivalent chips, which contain the IF, squelch, limiter & discriminator circuitry. Older Bearcat and Regency scanners, like the BC300 and M400, often hid the identity of their IC with "house numbers" painted over them. I compared these ICs pin for pin with the MC3357 and other known radio ICs to unmask their true identity. Having the Motorola IC data sheet and scanner service manuals made learning the chip internals easy, so I found the way to decrease hysteresis involved changing one resistor. ***** Be Curious ***** Modification: Trick the Icom R-71A to tune below 100 kHz. Motivation: Curiosity. Tried manipulating several front panel controls at the same time to see if I could confuse the microprocessor into doing something neat. I did. ***** Study the Schematic, Look for Unused Pins ***** Modification: Double the memory in the R-7000 (also published by another radio hobbyist). Motivation: curiosity. I studied the schematic of the R-7000, and looked up the memory IC in a data book. Icom grounded an address lead, so only 1/2 the chip capacity was used. Not having enough time to try the idea on my own radio, I suggested the idea Jack Albert, who writes the RTTY column in "Monitoring Times", who used his R-7000 as a guinea pig. ***** Borrow Circuits from Other Radio Models ***** Modification: S-meter circuit for Bearcat scanners (unpublished). Motivation: wanted to use scanners for transmitter hunting. I looked for other radios that used the same IF/squelch chip and already featured S-meters (like the Kenwood TR- 2600A, IC-28A, IC228H, etc.) I grafted their S-meter circuitry to my scanners. ***** Vary Parameters and Measure the Impact ***** Modification: Speed up the R-7000 scan rate. Motivation: dissatisfied with stock performance. I studied the radio schematic, found the components that determined scan rate, and substituted various values of resistance, measuring the affect of each change. ***** Apply Simple Theory ***** Modification: COR light for the PRO-2004. Motivation: make scanner easier to use in a roomful of other active radios. Having studied the schematics of many scanners, I was familiar with FM receiver and scanner circuitry. I used service manual and found the proper point in the circuit where a logic level signal was produced depending on whether a signal was absent or present. Again, the PRO-2004 used a popular IF/squelch chip. I used the simplest transistor switching principles to design a COR light circuit. ***** Fashion a Test Harness ***** Marvin Moss used an interesting approach to explore his portable scanner. He wired the diodes in the diode matrix of his Radio Shack PRO-34 to separate DIP switches so he could experiment with switching in and out different combinations of diodes. ***** All That Glitters is Not Gold ***** I always find other peoples' modifications very interesting, although not all are meritorious. For instance, avoid changing the crystal or RC time constant circuitry used as a clock for the microprocessor controller in your receiver. The controller performs many functions, so this alteration can produce undesirable side effects which outweigh any small increase in scan rate. The following file was written for informational purposes only! The author does not warrent the accuracy nor does he condone any form of illegal activity in respect to this file. Cellular Secrets by BOOTLEG (C) 1992 Let me start out by saying this file won't be in the best of ordered content as I'll be skipping around a little quoting data from various manuals as it pops into my mind. It will however, allow anyone that reads it thoroughly and obtains the manuals & equipment specified within, to do virtually anything regarding Cellular! ESN= Electronic Serial Number (every cellular has one in Rom) MIN= The cellulars phone # " " " " " " Reverse Channel= The channel the Cellular phone broadcasts on. Foward Channel = The channel the Cell Site broadcasts on. Remember these key terms as they are the secret to cellulars. Most cellulars have the ESN/MIN located in a Eprom/EEprom located somewhere on the circuit board.(older cellulars may not have a ESN) These are usually 27c256 or 27c512 eproms which can be burned or changed by standard eprom burners. They also contain the cellulars programming which can be changed. When you power up a cellular, it sends its ESN/MIN to the cell site on the reverse channel. The cell site then returns the MIN with an OK signal if their database verifies the ESN/MIN. Some newer cell site software will verify the ESN/MIN with the C.O. before allowing the call. If everything is ok, the cellular will then be able to place a call. (The REVERSE channels ESN/MIN & related data can be captured by equipment listed at the end of this file.) It seems like some scoundrels have captured other peoples ESN/MIN and burned new Eproms enabling another cellular phone to act as the original. Rumor has it that hackers have gone as far as actually changing the eproms software whereby the program jumps past the ESN/MIN address in the eprom to an address location that can be programmed into memory via the handset! Yet another rumor has it that some even go as far as re-programming the software to capture other cellulars ESN/MIN and automatically store the data in memory. This naturally allows someone to place fraudulent calls while frequently changing ESN/MINs to avoid all forms of detection. The cell sites usually use frequencies on the Non-wireline A band as forward channels. The reverse channels are usually 45 mhz below the forward channels. These REVERSE channels are the ones scanned by "UNSAVORY DOGS" that steal others ESN/MINs for fraudulent use. (hehe) Note that one hacker seems to think one can use a Z80 Uncompiler/Compiler on the eproms software of some cellulars. (The Shame of it all!) Other cellulars use different but common microprocessors of which compilers/de compilers are easily available. Ok-now that you have the theory behind cellular phreaking, I'll continue on to some backround & tech stuff you'll need. ****************************************************************** Cellular Overview A cell system divides the service area into small, low power areas called cells. A cell system has a continuous patern of these cells, each having a 1 to 40 mile radius (usually 5-10 miles). Within each cell is a base station which contain several transcievers and control equipment for the channels assigned to that cell. These are all connected to a MTSO which is in turn connected to a CO (central Office) switch. Each cell operates on an assigned channel and may have numerous paging and voice channels assigned to it. The cellular radio freqs have been divided by the FCC into 2 equal bands to allow 2 different systems to co-exist and compete in the same area. Originally there were 666 channels,but that was expanded to 832 in 1988, and with NAMPS to 2412 in 1991. Band A- Non Wireline Band B- Wireline Control channels=21 = 313-333 21= 334-354 Voice channels=001-312 355-666 (395 AMPS/1185 NAMPS) (395 AMPS/1185 NAMPS) Control channels are used to send and receive only digital data between the cellular phone & the cell base station. The 21 control channels in each band may be dedicated to two different applications: access and paging channels. The data on the Foward control channels provides such info as the system identification number and range of channels to scan to find the access and paging channels. Access channels are used to respond to a page or to originate a call. The system and the cell phone will use access channels where 2-way data transfer occurs to determine the initial voice channel. Paging channels if used are the holding place for an idle cell phone. When the call is received at the central controller for a cellular phone, the paging signalling will start on a paging channel. In many systems, both control channel functions will be served by the same access channel for a particular cell. Multiplepaging channels are only used in high density areas. NAM = Number assignment Module: This is a memory component (usually an Eprom/EEprom) that contains a cell phones ESN/MIN/SCM, lock code,etc. Some phones can be re-programmed via the handset so one can change their MIN several times. (usually the phones software locks it up after 3 to 20 MIN changes) This feature was used limitedly to deceive cell sites when roaming. Newer cell site software is quickly making this trick obsolete. ( the problem being is that one cannot change the ESN via NAM handset programming unless one re-writes the Eprom Software. HeHe) MTSO= Mobile Telephone Switching Office One must know, there is no distributed intelligence in the first generation of cellular systems! AT these cellular base stations there is little or no monitering equipment of any kind. There are a mix of 3 watt, 1.2 watt and 600 milliwatt cellular phones in use today. (keep this in mind as the power of a cellular phone is stored in ROM & transmitted along with the ESN/MIN and the coding must be correct.) 3 watt = mobiles, 1.6 watt=transportables, 600 milliwatt=portables IS-41 = The newest standard that will let cell switches from different vendors hand-off and deliver calls and transfer subscriber data profiles. (newest version is REVISION B) This document contains tons of usefull info & can be found at public libraries, etc. IS-41 rev b, is published by AT&T, although the original rev 0 published in 1987 or rev A published in 1990 may come in handy when dealing with older/smaller MTSOs that haven't upgraded yet. MTSOs typically use fiber optic links to cell sites or a 18 ghz microwave link. A cell site in turn then probably uses a 38 ghz microwave link to a Microcell Transmitter. TDMA and CDMA are both vying to become the industry standard. SS7 = As soon as a user turns on a cell phone the MIN/ESN for that phone will be carried as an SS7 network message to a database, known as the home location register(HLR),within the user's home carrier system. The HLR will provide information for validation as well as customer profile info for advanced features as voice mail. That info will then be be relayed to a second database, the visitor location register, maintained by the carrier that is hosting the roaming call. They hope to reduce fraud by checking the ESN with real time validation on a per call basis. The current system is unable to detect fraud until after a caller has made his first call. (This system simply uses a customers calling profile to detect an unusual calling pattern.) Those changing ESN/MINs often cannot be detected! Cell relay uses fixed length packets- 48 bytes for the payload and 5 bytes for the header. Two existing cell relay standards are IEEE 802.6 (DQDB) and ATM. They differ only in content of the header. Each cellular has 2 channels associated with it, the transmit (REVERSE) and the receive (FOWARD). REVERSE freqs= 824-848 mhz Forward freqs= 869-894 mhz Conventional dispatch=806-809.7 mhz and 851-854.75 mhz Trunked dispatch= 809.75-824 mhz and 854.75-869 mhz General reserve=848-851 mhz and 894-902 mhz and 928-947 mhz channel spacing = 30 mhz AMPS or 10 mhz NAMPS ************************************************************* Reverse Channel Info Voice channels are used primarily for conversation, with signaling used with quick data bursts or tones to handle cell to cell handoffs, output power control of the cellular radio-phone and special control features.Foward data from the cell site and REVERSE data from the cell phone is sent using frequency shift keying. The data is formatted into groups of words with a distinct binary preamble that allows the receiver to syncronize to the incomming data. With AMPS, various tones are used. With NAMPS the data and tones have been replaced by sub-audible digital equivalents that ride under the audio. (see EIA - 553 for AMPS or Motorolas NAMPS Air interface specification for NAMPS) Signaling Tone(ST) and Digital ST(DST) In AMPS, the signalling tone is a 10 khz signal used by the mobile on the REVERSE channel (REVC) to signal activities or to acknowledge commands from the cell site, including handoffs,alert orders, call terminations and switch-hook operation. Various burst lengths are used on different ST activities. On NAMPS channels ST is replaced by a digital equivalent called Digital ST (DST) which is the compliment of the assigned DSAT. The 10 khz signal is sent for 50 milliseconds. SAT (Supervisory Audio Tone) and DSAT (Digital SAT) The supervisory audio tone (SAT) is one of 3 frequencies: SAT 0 = 5970 hz SAT 1 = 6000 hz ( plus or minus 2khz on these SAT 2 = 6030 hz 3 freqs.) These are used in AMPS signaling. On NAMPS channels SAT is replaced by one of 7 subaudible digital equivalents or vectors called DSAT. SAT or DSAT is generated by the cell site, checked for frequency or accuracy by the cell phone, then transponded back to the cell site on the REVERSE voice channel (REVC). The cellular telephone uses (D)SAT to verify that it is tuned to the correct channel after a new voice channel assignment. When the CO signals the mobile regarding the new voice channel, it also tells the mobile of the SAT freq of the DSAT vector to expect on the new channel. The returned (D)SAT is used at the cell site to verify the presence of the telephones signal on the designated frequency. DSAT = +/- 700 hz deviation Data = Transmitted at 10 kbits/sec. Used for sending System Orders & mobile identification. In cellular the data is transmitted as Frequency Key Shifting, where the carrier is shifted high 8 khz in AMPS(700 hz in NAMPS) to represent a logic high (or 1), and the carrier is shifted low 8 khz in AMPS(700 hz in NAMPS) to represent a logic low (or 0). Control channels carry data only. Voice channels carry data and other signals listed here. Audio = includes all microphone audio & DTMF while in a call (maximum =/- 12 khz deviation AMPS,=/- 5 khz dev NAMPS). DTMF uses 2 tones (one high one low)from a selection of seven tones (4 low,3 high tones) to indicate digits being dialed. In AMPS signalling, audio & ST are accompanied by SAT. ******************************************************************* Placing a call from a Cellular Phone When first turned on, the cellular scans through the FOCCs and measure the strengt of each signal. It will then tune to the strongest & attempt to decode the overhead control message. From the overhead the phone can determine if it is in its home system and range of channels to scan for paging and access. If paging channels are used, the phone next scans each paging channelin the specified range & tunes to the strongest one. Its on that channel the phone will continuously receive overhead message info plus paging messages. At this point the phone idles, continuously updating the overhead message info in its memory and monitoring the paging messages for its telephone number. When the cellular phone user originates the call, the phone rescans the access channels to assure that its tuned to the strongest one. It then transmits at 10kbits per sec on the control channel to notify the switch of its MIN (mobile identification number (phone number)), its ESN and the number it wants to reach. The switch verifies the incomming data and assigns a voice channel and a SAT (or DSAT forNAMPS) to the telephone. The phone tunes to the assigned voice channel and verifies the presence of the proper foward SAT frequency or (DSAT message. If SAT (DSAT) is correct the phone transponds SAT(DSAT) back to the cell site and unmutes the forward audio. The cell site detects reverse SAT(DSAT) from the cellular & unmutes reverse audio. At this point the user can hear the other end ring. SAT(DSAT is sent and received more or less continuously by both the base station & the phone but SAT(DSAT) is not sent during data transmissions and the phone does not transpond SAT continously during VOX operation. DSAT is suspended during the transmission of DST. SAT 7 signalling tones are only used on AMPS voice channels & the signalling tone is only transmitted by the cellular phone. Note that the number called, the ESN, MIN etc. are transmitted 4 or 5 times & it only takes 260 milliseconds for all this data exchange. Call termination = 10 khz tone burst for 1.8 seconds. **************************************************************** Formulae Freq calc for channels 1-799 = REVERSE = 825mhz + (Ch.# X .03 mhz) Forward = 870mhz + (Ch.# X .03 mhz) Freq calc for channels 991-1023 REV = 825mhz - (.03 mhz X(1023-Ch#)) For = 870mhz - " " " " Duplex spacing = 45 mhz *********************************************************************** Station Class Mark (SCM) SCM 666 or 832 Ch. VOX Max Power in Watts 00 666 n 3 01 666 n 1.2 02 666 n .6 03 04 666 y 3 05 666 y 1.2 06 666 y .6 07 08 832 n 3 09 832 n 1.2 10 832 n .6 11 12 832 y 3 13 832 y 1.2 14 832 y .6 15 If the SCM is not set properly during programming the EProm, it might have adverse effects on the operation of the phone. It may also flag security software to a "Tumbled Phone". Smart cell phreaks will only use ESN/MINs that have the same SCM as their own phone they plan on TUMBLING. ********************************************************************* Cellular phone channel construction =============================================================================== Here is a method of determining which frequencies are used in a cellular system, and which ones are in what cells. If the system uses OMNICELLS, as most do, you can readily find all the channels in a cell if you know just one of them, using tables constructed with the instructions below. Cellular frequencies are assigned by channel number, and for all channel numbers, in both wireline and non-wireline systems, the formula is: Transmit Frequency = (channel number x .030 MHz) + 870 MHz Receive Frequency = (channel number x .030 Mhz) + 825 Mhz "Band A" (one of the two blocks) uses channels 1 - 333. To construct a table showing frequency by cells, use channel 333 as the top left corner of a table. The next entry to the right of channel 333 is 332, the next is 331, etc., down to channel 313. Enter channel 312 underneath 333, 311 under 332, etc. Each channel across the top row is the first channel in each CELL of the system; each channel DOWN from the column from the the first channel is the next frequency assigned to that cell. You may have noted that each channel down is 21 channels lower in number. Usually the data channel used is the highest numbered channel in a cell. "Band B" uses channels from 334 to 666. Construct your table in a similar way, with channel 334 in the upper left corner, 335 the next entry to the right. The data channel should be the lowest numbered channel in each cell this time. Cellular Phone Band A (Channel 1 is Data) Cell # 1 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (333) Tx 879.990 Rx 834.990 Channel 2 (312) Tx 879.360 Rx 834.360 Channel 3 (291) Tx 878.730 Rx 833.730 Channel 4 (270) Tx 878.100 Rx 833.100 Channel 5 (249) Tx 877.470 Rx 832.470 Channel 6 (228) Tx 876.840 Rx 831.840 Channel 7 (207) Tx 876.210 Rx 831.210 Channel 8 (186) Tx 875.580 Rx 830.580 Channel 9 (165) Tx 874.950 Rx 829.950 Channel 10 (144) Tx 874.320 Rx 829.320 Channel 11 (123) Tx 873.690 Rx 828.690 Channel 12 (102) Tx 873.060 Rx 828.060 Channel 13 (81) Tx 872.430 Rx 827.430 Channel 14 (60) Tx 871.800 Rx 826.800 Channel 15 (39) Tx 871.170 Rx 826.170 Channel 16 (18) Tx 870.540 Rx 825.540 Cell # 2 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (332) Tx 879.960 Rx 834.960 Channel 2 (311) Tx 879.330 Rx 834.330 Channel 3 (290) Tx 878.700 Rx 833.700 Channel 4 (269) Tx 878.070 Rx 833.070 Channel 5 (248) Tx 877.440 Rx 832.440 Channel 6 (227) Tx 876.810 Rx 831.810 Channel 7 (206) Tx 876.180 Rx 831.180 Channel 8 (185) Tx 875.550 Rx 830.550 Channel 9 (164) Tx 874.920 Rx 829.920 Channel 10 (143) Tx 874.290 Rx 829.290 Channel 11 (122) Tx 873.660 Rx 828.660 Channel 12 (101) Tx 873.030 Rx 828.030 Channel 13 (80) Tx 872.400 Rx 827.400 Channel 14 (59) Tx 871.770 Rx 826.770 Channel 15 (38) Tx 871.140 Rx 826.140 Channel 16 (17) Tx 870.510 Rx 825.510 Cell # 3 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (331) Tx 879.930 Rx 834.930 Channel 2 (310) Tx 879.300 Rx 834.300 Channel 3 (289) Tx 878.670 Rx 833.670 Channel 4 (268) Tx 878.040 Rx 833.040 Channel 5 (247) Tx 877.410 Rx 832.410 Channel 6 (226) Tx 876.780 Rx 831.780 Channel 7 (205) Tx 876.150 Rx 831.150 Channel 8 (184) Tx 875.520 Rx 830.520 Channel 9 (163) Tx 874.890 Rx 829.890 Channel 10 (142) Tx 874.260 Rx 829.260 Channel 11 (121) Tx 873.630 Rx 828.630 Channel 12 (100) Tx 873.000 Rx 828.000 Channel 13 (79) Tx 872.370 Rx 827.370 Channel 14 (58) Tx 871.740 Rx 826.740 Channel 15 (37) Tx 871.110 Rx 826.110 Channel 16 (16) Tx 870.480 Rx 825.480 Cell # 4 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (330) Tx 879.900 Rx 834.900 Channel 2 (309) Tx 879.270 Rx 834.270 Channel 3 (288) Tx 878.640 Rx 833.640 Channel 4 (267) Tx 878.010 Rx 833.010 Channel 5 (246) Tx 877.380 Rx 832.380 Channel 6 (225) Tx 876.750 Rx 831.750 Channel 7 (204) Tx 876.120 Rx 831.120 Channel 8 (183) Tx 875.490 Rx 830.490 Channel 9 (162) Tx 874.860 Rx 829.860 Channel 10 (141) Tx 874.230 Rx 829.230 Channel 11 (120) Tx 873.600 Rx 828.600 Channel 12 (99) Tx 872.970 Rx 827.970 Channel 13 (78) Tx 872.340 Rx 827.340 Channel 14 (57) Tx 871.710 Rx 826.710 Channel 15 (36) Tx 871.080 Rx 826.080 Channel 16 (15) Tx 870.450 Rx 825.450 Cell # 5 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (329) Tx 879.870 Rx 834.870 Channel 2 (308) Tx 879.240 Rx 834.240 Channel 3 (287) Tx 878.610 Rx 833.610 Channel 4 (266) Tx 877.980 Rx 832.980 Channel 5 (245) Tx 877.350 Rx 832.350 Channel 6 (224) Tx 876.720 Rx 831.720 Channel 7 (203) Tx 876.090 Rx 831.090 Channel 8 (182) Tx 875.460 Rx 830.460 Channel 9 (161) Tx 874.830 Rx 829.830 Channel 10 (140) Tx 874.200 Rx 829.200 Channel 11 (119) Tx 873.570 Rx 828.570 Channel 12 (98) Tx 872.940 Rx 827.940 Channel 13 (77) Tx 872.310 Rx 827.310 Channel 14 (56) Tx 871.680 Rx 826.680 Channel 15 (35) Tx 871.050 Rx 826.050 Channel 16 (14) Tx 870.420 Rx 825.420 Cell # 6 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (328) Tx 879.840 Rx 834.840 Channel 2 (307) Tx 879.210 Rx 834.210 Channel 3 (286) Tx 878.580 Rx 833.580 Channel 4 (265) Tx 877.950 Rx 832.950 Channel 5 (244) Tx 877.320 Rx 832.320 Channel 6 (223) Tx 876.690 Rx 831.690 Channel 7 (202) Tx 876.060 Rx 831.060 Channel 8 (181) Tx 875.430 Rx 830.430 Channel 9 (160) Tx 874.800 Rx 829.800 Channel 10 (139) Tx 874.170 Rx 829.170 Channel 11 (118) Tx 873.540 Rx 828.540 Channel 12 (97) Tx 872.910 Rx 827.910 Channel 13 (76) Tx 872.280 Rx 827.280 Channel 14 (55) Tx 871.650 Rx 826.650 Channel 15 (34) Tx 871.020 Rx 826.020 Channel 16 (13) Tx 870.390 Rx 825.390 Cell # 7 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (327) Tx 879.810 Rx 834.810 Channel 2 (306) Tx 879.180 Rx 834.180 Channel 3 (285) Tx 878.550 Rx 833.550 Channel 4 (264) Tx 877.920 Rx 832.920 Channel 5 (243) Tx 877.290 Rx 832.290 Channel 6 (222) Tx 876.660 Rx 831.660 Channel 7 (201) Tx 876.030 Rx 831.030 Channel 8 (180) Tx 875.400 Rx 830.400 Channel 9 (159) Tx 874.770 Rx 829.770 Channel 10 (138) Tx 874.140 Rx 829.140 Channel 11 (117) Tx 873.510 Rx 828.510 Channel 12 (96) Tx 872.880 Rx 827.880 Channel 13 (75) Tx 872.250 Rx 827.250 Channel 14 (54) Tx 871.620 Rx 826.620 Channel 15 (33) Tx 870.990 Rx 825.990 Channel 16 (12) Tx 870.360 Rx 825.360 Cell # 8 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (326) Tx 879.780 Rx 834.780 Channel 2 (305) Tx 879.150 Rx 834.150 Channel 3 (284) Tx 878.520 Rx 833.520 Channel 4 (263) Tx 877.890 Rx 832.890 Channel 5 (242) Tx 877.260 Rx 832.260 Channel 6 (221) Tx 876.630 Rx 831.630 Channel 7 (200) Tx 876.000 Rx 831.000 Channel 8 (179) Tx 875.370 Rx 830.370 Channel 9 (158) Tx 874.740 Rx 829.740 Channel 10 (137) Tx 874.110 Rx 829.110 Channel 11 (116) Tx 873.480 Rx 828.480 Channel 12 (95) Tx 872.850 Rx 827.850 Channel 13 (74) Tx 872.220 Rx 827.220 Channel 14 (53) Tx 871.590 Rx 826.590 Channel 15 (32) Tx 870.960 Rx 825.960 Channel 16 (11) Tx 870.330 Rx 825.330 Cell # 9 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (325) Tx 879.750 Rx 834.750 Channel 2 (304) Tx 879.120 Rx 834.120 Channel 3 (283) Tx 878.490 Rx 833.490 Channel 4 (262) Tx 877.860 Rx 832.860 Channel 5 (241) Tx 877.230 Rx 832.230 Channel 6 (220) Tx 876.600 Rx 831.600 Channel 7 (199) Tx 875.970 Rx 830.970 Channel 8 (178) Tx 875.340 Rx 830.340 Channel 9 (157) Tx 874.710 Rx 829.710 Channel 10 (136) Tx 874.080 Rx 829.080 Channel 11 (115) Tx 873.450 Rx 828.450 Channel 12 (94) Tx 872.820 Rx 827.820 Channel 13 (73) Tx 872.190 Rx 827.190 Channel 14 (52) Tx 871.560 Rx 826.560 Channel 15 (31) Tx 870.930 Rx 825.930 Channel 16 (10) Tx 870.300 Rx 825.300 Cell # 10 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (324) Tx 879.720 Rx 834.720 Channel 2 (303) Tx 879.090 Rx 834.090 Channel 3 (282) Tx 878.460 Rx 833.460 Channel 4 (261) Tx 877.830 Rx 832.830 Channel 5 (240) Tx 877.200 Rx 832.200 Channel 6 (219) Tx 876.570 Rx 831.570 Channel 7 (198) Tx 875.940 Rx 830.940 Channel 8 (177) Tx 875.310 Rx 830.310 Channel 9 (156) Tx 874.680 Rx 829.680 Channel 10 (135) Tx 874.050 Rx 829.050 Channel 11 (114) Tx 873.420 Rx 828.420 Channel 12 (93) Tx 872.790 Rx 827.790 Channel 13 (72) Tx 872.160 Rx 827.160 Channel 14 (51) Tx 871.530 Rx 826.530 Channel 15 (30) Tx 870.900 Rx 825.900 Channel 16 (9) Tx 870.270 Rx 825.270 Cell # 11 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (323) Tx 879.690 Rx 834.690 Channel 2 (302) Tx 879.060 Rx 834.060 Channel 3 (281) Tx 878.430 Rx 833.430 Channel 4 (260) Tx 877.800 Rx 832.800 Channel 5 (239) Tx 877.170 Rx 832.170 Channel 6 (218) Tx 876.540 Rx 831.540 Channel 7 (197) Tx 875.910 Rx 830.910 Channel 8 (176) Tx 875.280 Rx 830.280 Channel 9 (155) Tx 874.650 Rx 829.650 Channel 10 (134) Tx 874.020 Rx 829.020 Channel 11 (113) Tx 873.390 Rx 828.390 Channel 12 (92) Tx 872.760 Rx 827.760 Channel 13 (71) Tx 872.130 Rx 827.130 Channel 14 (50) Tx 871.500 Rx 826.500 Channel 15 (29) Tx 870.870 Rx 825.870 Channel 16 (8) Tx 870.240 Rx 825.240 Cell # 12 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (322) Tx 879.660 Rx 834.660 Channel 2 (301) Tx 879.030 Rx 834.030 Channel 3 (280) Tx 878.400 Rx 833.400 Channel 4 (259) Tx 877.770 Rx 832.770 Channel 5 (238) Tx 877.140 Rx 832.140 Channel 6 (217) Tx 876.510 Rx 831.510 Channel 7 (196) Tx 875.880 Rx 830.880 Channel 8 (175) Tx 875.250 Rx 830.250 Channel 9 (154) Tx 874.620 Rx 829.620 Channel 10 (133) Tx 873.990 Rx 828.990 Channel 11 (112) Tx 873.360 Rx 828.360 Channel 12 (91) Tx 872.730 Rx 827.730 Channel 13 (70) Tx 872.100 Rx 827.100 Channel 14 (49) Tx 871.470 Rx 826.470 Channel 15 (28) Tx 870.840 Rx 825.840 Channel 16 (7) Tx 870.210 Rx 825.210 Cell # 13 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (321) Tx 879.630 Rx 834.630 Channel 2 (300) Tx 879.000 Rx 834.000 Channel 3 (279) Tx 878.370 Rx 833.370 Channel 4 (258) Tx 877.740 Rx 832.740 Channel 5 (237) Tx 877.110 Rx 832.110 Channel 6 (216) Tx 876.480 Rx 831.480 Channel 7 (195) Tx 875.850 Rx 830.850 Channel 8 (174) Tx 875.220 Rx 830.220 Channel 9 (153) Tx 874.590 Rx 829.590 Channel 10 (132) Tx 873.960 Rx 828.960 Channel 11 (111) Tx 873.330 Rx 828.330 Channel 12 (90) Tx 872.700 Rx 827.700 Channel 13 (69) Tx 872.070 Rx 827.070 Channel 14 (48) Tx 871.440 Rx 826.440 Channel 15 (27) Tx 870.810 Rx 825.810 Channel 16 (6) Tx 870.180 Rx 825.180 Cell # 14 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (320) Tx 879.600 Rx 834.600 Channel 2 (299) Tx 878.970 Rx 833.970 Channel 3 (278) Tx 878.340 Rx 833.340 Channel 4 (257) Tx 877.710 Rx 832.710 Channel 5 (236) Tx 877.080 Rx 832.080 Channel 6 (215) Tx 876.450 Rx 831.450 Channel 7 (194) Tx 875.820 Rx 830.820 Channel 8 (173) Tx 875.190 Rx 830.190 Channel 9 (152) Tx 874.560 Rx 829.560 Channel 10 (131) Tx 873.930 Rx 828.930 Channel 11 (110) Tx 873.300 Rx 828.300 Channel 12 (89) Tx 872.670 Rx 827.670 Channel 13 (68) Tx 872.040 Rx 827.040 Channel 14 (47) Tx 871.410 Rx 826.410 Channel 15 (26) Tx 870.780 Rx 825.780 Channel 16 (5) Tx 870.150 Rx 825.150 Cell # 15 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (319) Tx 879.570 Rx 834.570 Channel 2 (298) Tx 878.940 Rx 833.940 Channel 3 (277) Tx 878.310 Rx 833.310 Channel 4 (256) Tx 877.680 Rx 832.680 Channel 5 (235) Tx 877.050 Rx 832.050 Channel 6 (214) Tx 876.420 Rx 831.420 Channel 7 (193) Tx 875.790 Rx 830.790 Channel 8 (172) Tx 875.160 Rx 830.160 Channel 9 (151) Tx 874.530 Rx 829.530 Channel 10 (130) Tx 873.900 Rx 828.900 Channel 11 (109) Tx 873.270 Rx 828.270 Channel 12 (88) Tx 872.640 Rx 827.640 Channel 13 (67) Tx 872.010 Rx 827.010 Channel 14 (46) Tx 871.380 Rx 826.380 Channel 15 (25) Tx 870.750 Rx 825.750 Channel 16 (4) Tx 870.120 Rx 825.120 Cell # 16 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (318) Tx 879.540 Rx 834.540 Channel 2 (297) Tx 878.910 Rx 833.910 Channel 3 (276) Tx 878.280 Rx 833.280 Channel 4 (255) Tx 877.650 Rx 832.650 Channel 5 (234) Tx 877.020 Rx 832.020 Channel 6 (213) Tx 876.390 Rx 831.390 Channel 7 (192) Tx 875.760 Rx 830.760 Channel 8 (171) Tx 875.130 Rx 830.130 Channel 9 (150) Tx 874.500 Rx 829.500 Channel 10 (129) Tx 873.870 Rx 828.870 Channel 11 (108) Tx 873.240 Rx 828.240 Channel 12 (87) Tx 872.610 Rx 827.610 Channel 13 (66) Tx 871.980 Rx 826.980 Channel 14 (45) Tx 871.350 Rx 826.350 Channel 15 (24) Tx 870.720 Rx 825.720 Channel 16 (3) Tx 870.090 Rx 825.090 Cell # 17 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (317) Tx 879.510 Rx 834.510 Channel 2 (296) Tx 878.880 Rx 833.880 Channel 3 (275) Tx 878.250 Rx 833.250 Channel 4 (254) Tx 877.620 Rx 832.620 Channel 5 (233) Tx 876.990 Rx 831.990 Channel 6 (212) Tx 876.360 Rx 831.360 Channel 7 (191) Tx 875.730 Rx 830.730 Channel 8 (170) Tx 875.100 Rx 830.100 Channel 9 (149) Tx 874.470 Rx 829.470 Channel 10 (128) Tx 873.840 Rx 828.840 Channel 11 (107) Tx 873.210 Rx 828.210 Channel 12 (86) Tx 872.580 Rx 827.580 Channel 13 (65) Tx 871.950 Rx 826.950 Channel 14 (44) Tx 871.320 Rx 826.320 Channel 15 (23) Tx 870.690 Rx 825.690 Channel 16 (2) Tx 870.060 Rx 825.060 Cell # 18 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (316) Tx 879.480 Rx 834.480 Channel 2 (295) Tx 878.850 Rx 833.850 Channel 3 (274) Tx 878.220 Rx 833.220 Channel 4 (253) Tx 877.590 Rx 832.590 Channel 5 (232) Tx 876.960 Rx 831.960 Channel 6 (211) Tx 876.330 Rx 831.330 Channel 7 (190) Tx 875.700 Rx 830.700 Channel 8 (169) Tx 875.070 Rx 830.070 Channel 9 (148) Tx 874.440 Rx 829.440 Channel 10 (127) Tx 873.810 Rx 828.810 Channel 11 (106) Tx 873.180 Rx 828.180 Channel 12 (85) Tx 872.550 Rx 827.550 Channel 13 (64) Tx 871.920 Rx 826.920 Channel 14 (43) Tx 871.290 Rx 826.290 Channel 15 (22) Tx 870.660 Rx 825.660 Channel 16 (1) Tx 870.030 Rx 825.030 Cell # 19 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (315) Tx 879.450 Rx 834.450 Channel 2 (294) Tx 878.820 Rx 833.820 Channel 3 (273) Tx 878.190 Rx 833.190 Channel 4 (252) Tx 877.560 Rx 832.560 Channel 5 (231) Tx 876.930 Rx 831.930 Channel 6 (210) Tx 876.300 Rx 831.300 Channel 7 (189) Tx 875.670 Rx 830.670 Channel 8 (168) Tx 875.040 Rx 830.040 Channel 9 (147) Tx 874.410 Rx 829.410 Channel 10 (126) Tx 873.780 Rx 828.780 Channel 11 (105) Tx 873.150 Rx 828.150 Channel 12 (84) Tx 872.520 Rx 827.520 Channel 13 (63) Tx 871.890 Rx 826.890 Channel 14 (42) Tx 871.260 Rx 826.260 Channel 15 (21) Tx 870.630 Rx 825.630 Cell # 20 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (314) Tx 879.420 Rx 834.420 Channel 2 (293) Tx 878.790 Rx 833.790 Channel 3 (272) Tx 878.160 Rx 833.160 Channel 4 (251) Tx 877.530 Rx 832.530 Channel 5 (230) Tx 876.900 Rx 831.900 Channel 6 (209) Tx 876.270 Rx 831.270 Channel 7 (188) Tx 875.640 Rx 830.640 Channel 8 (167) Tx 875.010 Rx 830.010 Channel 9 (146) Tx 874.380 Rx 829.380 Channel 10 (125) Tx 873.750 Rx 828.750 Channel 11 (104) Tx 873.120 Rx 828.120 Channel 12 (83) Tx 872.490 Rx 827.490 Channel 13 (62) Tx 871.860 Rx 826.860 Channel 14 (41) Tx 871.230 Rx 826.230 Channel 15 (20) Tx 870.600 Rx 825.600 Cell # 21 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (313) Tx 879.390 Rx 834.390 Channel 2 (292) Tx 878.760 Rx 833.760 Channel 3 (271) Tx 878.130 Rx 833.130 Channel 4 (250) Tx 877.500 Rx 832.500 Channel 5 (229) Tx 876.870 Rx 831.870 Channel 6 (208) Tx 876.240 Rx 831.240 Channel 7 (187) Tx 875.610 Rx 830.610 Channel 8 (166) Tx 874.980 Rx 829.980 Channel 9 (145) Tx 874.350 Rx 829.350 Channel 10 (124) Tx 873.720 Rx 828.720 Channel 11 (103) Tx 873.090 Rx 828.090 Channel 12 (82) Tx 872.460 Rx 827.460 Channel 13 (61) Tx 871.830 Rx 826.830 Channel 14 (40) Tx 871.200 Rx 826.200 Channel 15 (19) Tx 870.570 Rx 825.570 ************************************************** Cellular Phone Band B (Channel 1 is Data) Cell # 1 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (334) Tx 880.020 Rx 835.020 Channel 2 (355) Tx 880.650 Rx 835.650 Channel 3 (376) Tx 881.280 Rx 836.280 Channel 4 (397) Tx 881.910 Rx 836.910 Channel 5 (418) Tx 882.540 Rx 837.540 Channel 6 (439) Tx 883.170 Rx 838.170 Channel 7 (460) Tx 883.800 Rx 838.800 Channel 8 (481) Tx 884.430 Rx 839.430 Channel 9 (502) Tx 885.060 Rx 840.060 Channel 10 (523) Tx 885.690 Rx 840.690 Channel 11 (544) Tx 886.320 Rx 841.320 Channel 12 (565) Tx 886.950 Rx 841.950 Channel 13 (586) Tx 887.580 Rx 842.580 Channel 14 (607) Tx 888.210 Rx 843.210 Channel 15 (628) Tx 888.840 Rx 843.840 Channel 16 (649) Tx 889.470 Rx 844.470 Cell # 2 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (335) Tx 880.050 Rx 835.050 Channel 2 (356) Tx 880.680 Rx 835.680 Channel 3 (377) Tx 881.310 Rx 836.310 Channel 4 (398) Tx 881.940 Rx 836.940 Channel 5 (419) Tx 882.570 Rx 837.570 Channel 6 (440) Tx 883.200 Rx 838.200 Channel 7 (461) Tx 883.830 Rx 838.830 Channel 8 (482) Tx 884.460 Rx 839.460 Channel 9 (503) Tx 885.090 Rx 840.090 Channel 10 (524) Tx 885.720 Rx 840.720 Channel 11 (545) Tx 886.350 Rx 841.350 Channel 12 (566) Tx 886.980 Rx 841.980 Channel 13 (587) Tx 887.610 Rx 842.610 Channel 14 (608) Tx 888.240 Rx 843.240 Channel 15 (629) Tx 888.870 Rx 843.870 Channel 16 (650) Tx 889.500 Rx 844.500 Cell # 3 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (336) Tx 880.080 Rx 835.080 Channel 2 (357) Tx 880.710 Rx 835.710 Channel 3 (378) Tx 881.340 Rx 836.340 Channel 4 (399) Tx 881.970 Rx 836.970 Channel 5 (420) Tx 882.600 Rx 837.600 Channel 6 (441) Tx 883.230 Rx 838.230 Channel 7 (462) Tx 883.860 Rx 838.860 Channel 8 (483) Tx 884.490 Rx 839.490 Channel 9 (504) Tx 885.120 Rx 840.120 Channel 10 (525) Tx 885.750 Rx 840.750 Channel 11 (546) Tx 886.380 Rx 841.380 Channel 12 (567) Tx 887.010 Rx 842.010 Channel 13 (588) Tx 887.640 Rx 842.640 Channel 14 (609) Tx 888.270 Rx 843.270 Channel 15 (630) Tx 888.900 Rx 843.900 Channel 16 (651) Tx 889.530 Rx 844.530 Cell # 4 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (337) Tx 880.110 Rx 835.110 Channel 2 (358) Tx 880.740 Rx 835.740 Channel 3 (379) Tx 881.370 Rx 836.370 Channel 4 (400) Tx 882.000 Rx 837.000 Channel 5 (421) Tx 882.630 Rx 837.630 Channel 6 (442) Tx 883.260 Rx 838.260 Channel 7 (463) Tx 883.890 Rx 838.890 Channel 8 (484) Tx 884.520 Rx 839.520 Channel 9 (505) Tx 885.150 Rx 840.150 Channel 10 (526) Tx 885.780 Rx 840.780 Channel 11 (547) Tx 886.410 Rx 841.410 Channel 12 (568) Tx 887.040 Rx 842.040 Channel 13 (589) Tx 887.670 Rx 842.670 Channel 14 (610) Tx 888.300 Rx 843.300 Channel 15 (631) Tx 888.930 Rx 843.930 Channel 16 (652) Tx 889.560 Rx 844.560 Cell # 5 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (338) Tx 880.140 Rx 835.140 Channel 2 (359) Tx 880.770 Rx 835.770 Channel 3 (380) Tx 881.400 Rx 836.400 Channel 4 (401) Tx 882.030 Rx 837.030 Channel 5 (422) Tx 882.660 Rx 837.660 Channel 6 (443) Tx 883.290 Rx 838.290 Channel 7 (464) Tx 883.920 Rx 838.920 Channel 8 (485) Tx 884.550 Rx 839.550 Channel 9 (506) Tx 885.180 Rx 840.180 Channel 10 (527) Tx 885.810 Rx 840.810 Channel 11 (548) Tx 886.440 Rx 841.440 Channel 12 (569) Tx 887.070 Rx 842.070 Channel 13 (590) Tx 887.700 Rx 842.700 Channel 14 (611) Tx 888.330 Rx 843.330 Channel 15 (632) Tx 888.960 Rx 843.960 Channel 16 (653) Tx 889.590 Rx 844.590 Cell # 6 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (339) Tx 880.170 Rx 835.170 Channel 2 (360) Tx 880.800 Rx 835.800 Channel 3 (381) Tx 881.430 Rx 836.430 Channel 4 (402) Tx 882.060 Rx 837.060 Channel 5 (423) Tx 882.690 Rx 837.690 Channel 6 (444) Tx 883.320 Rx 838.320 Channel 7 (465) Tx 883.950 Rx 838.950 Channel 8 (486) Tx 884.580 Rx 839.580 Channel 9 (507) Tx 885.210 Rx 840.210 Channel 10 (528) Tx 885.840 Rx 840.840 Channel 11 (549) Tx 886.470 Rx 841.470 Channel 12 (570) Tx 887.100 Rx 842.100 Channel 13 (591) Tx 887.730 Rx 842.730 Channel 14 (612) Tx 888.360 Rx 843.360 Channel 15 (633) Tx 888.990 Rx 843.990 Channel 16 (654) Tx 889.620 Rx 844.620 Cell # 7 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (340) Tx 880.200 Rx 835.200 Channel 2 (361) Tx 880.830 Rx 835.830 Channel 3 (382) Tx 881.460 Rx 836.460 Channel 4 (403) Tx 882.090 Rx 837.090 Channel 5 (424) Tx 882.720 Rx 837.720 Channel 6 (445) Tx 883.350 Rx 838.350 Channel 7 (466) Tx 883.980 Rx 838.980 Channel 8 (487) Tx 884.610 Rx 839.610 Channel 9 (508) Tx 885.240 Rx 840.240 Channel 10 (529) Tx 885.870 Rx 840.870 Channel 11 (550) Tx 886.500 Rx 841.500 Channel 12 (571) Tx 887.130 Rx 842.130 Channel 13 (592) Tx 887.760 Rx 842.760 Channel 14 (613) Tx 888.390 Rx 843.390 Channel 15 (634) Tx 889.020 Rx 844.020 Channel 16 (655) Tx 889.650 Rx 844.650 Cell # 8 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (341) Tx 880.230 Rx 835.230 Channel 2 (362) Tx 880.860 Rx 835.860 Channel 3 (383) Tx 881.490 Rx 836.490 Channel 4 (404) Tx 882.120 Rx 837.120 Channel 5 (425) Tx 882.750 Rx 837.750 Channel 6 (446) Tx 883.380 Rx 838.380 Channel 7 (467) Tx 884.010 Rx 839.010 Channel 8 (488) Tx 884.640 Rx 839.640 Channel 9 (509) Tx 885.270 Rx 840.270 Channel 10 (530) Tx 885.900 Rx 840.900 Channel 11 (551) Tx 886.530 Rx 841.530 Channel 12 (572) Tx 887.160 Rx 842.160 Channel 13 (593) Tx 887.790 Rx 842.790 Channel 14 (614) Tx 888.420 Rx 843.420 Channel 15 (635) Tx 889.050 Rx 844.050 Channel 16 (656) Tx 889.680 Rx 844.680 Cell # 9 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (342) Tx 880.260 Rx 835.260 Channel 2 (363) Tx 880.890 Rx 835.890 Channel 3 (384) Tx 881.520 Rx 836.520 Channel 4 (405) Tx 882.150 Rx 837.150 Channel 5 (426) Tx 882.780 Rx 837.780 Channel 6 (447) Tx 883.410 Rx 838.410 Channel 7 (468) Tx 884.040 Rx 839.040 Channel 8 (489) Tx 884.670 Rx 839.670 Channel 9 (510) Tx 885.300 Rx 840.300 Channel 10 (531) Tx 885.930 Rx 840.930 Channel 11 (552) Tx 886.560 Rx 841.560 Channel 12 (573) Tx 887.190 Rx 842.190 Channel 13 (594) Tx 887.820 Rx 842.820 Channel 14 (615) Tx 888.450 Rx 843.450 Channel 15 (636) Tx 889.080 Rx 844.080 Channel 16 (657) Tx 889.710 Rx 844.710 Cell # 10 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (343) Tx 880.290 Rx 835.290 Channel 2 (364) Tx 880.920 Rx 835.920 Channel 3 (385) Tx 881.550 Rx 836.550 Channel 4 (406) Tx 882.180 Rx 837.180 Channel 5 (427) Tx 882.810 Rx 837.810 Channel 6 (448) Tx 883.440 Rx 838.440 Channel 7 (469) Tx 884.070 Rx 839.070 Channel 8 (490) Tx 884.700 Rx 839.700 Channel 9 (511) Tx 885.330 Rx 840.330 Channel 10 (532) Tx 885.960 Rx 840.960 Channel 11 (553) Tx 886.590 Rx 841.590 Channel 12 (574) Tx 887.220 Rx 842.220 Channel 13 (595) Tx 887.850 Rx 842.850 Channel 14 (616) Tx 888.480 Rx 843.480 Channel 15 (637) Tx 889.110 Rx 844.110 Channel 16 (658) Tx 889.740 Rx 844.740 Cell # 11 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (344) Tx 880.320 Rx 835.320 Channel 2 (365) Tx 880.950 Rx 835.950 Channel 3 (386) Tx 881.580 Rx 836.580 Channel 4 (407) Tx 882.210 Rx 837.210 Channel 5 (428) Tx 882.840 Rx 837.840 Channel 6 (449) Tx 883.470 Rx 838.470 Channel 7 (470) Tx 884.100 Rx 839.100 Channel 8 (491) Tx 884.730 Rx 839.730 Channel 9 (512) Tx 885.360 Rx 840.360 Channel 10 (533) Tx 885.990 Rx 840.990 Channel 11 (554) Tx 886.620 Rx 841.620 Channel 12 (575) Tx 887.250 Rx 842.250 Channel 13 (596) Tx 887.880 Rx 842.880 Channel 14 (617) Tx 888.510 Rx 843.510 Channel 15 (638) Tx 889.140 Rx 844.140 Channel 16 (659) Tx 889.770 Rx 844.770 Cell # 12 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (345) Tx 880.350 Rx 835.350 Channel 2 (366) Tx 880.980 Rx 835.980 Channel 3 (387) Tx 881.610 Rx 836.610 Channel 4 (408) Tx 882.240 Rx 837.240 Channel 5 (429) Tx 882.870 Rx 837.870 Channel 6 (450) Tx 883.500 Rx 838.500 Channel 7 (471) Tx 884.130 Rx 839.130 Channel 8 (492) Tx 884.760 Rx 839.760 Channel 9 (513) Tx 885.390 Rx 840.390 Channel 10 (534) Tx 886.020 Rx 841.020 Channel 11 (555) Tx 886.650 Rx 841.650 Channel 12 (576) Tx 887.280 Rx 842.280 Channel 13 (597) Tx 887.910 Rx 842.910 Channel 14 (618) Tx 888.540 Rx 843.540 Channel 15 (639) Tx 889.170 Rx 844.170 Channel 16 (660) Tx 889.800 Rx 844.800 Cell # 13 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (346) Tx 880.380 Rx 835.380 Channel 2 (367) Tx 881.010 Rx 836.010 Channel 3 (388) Tx 881.640 Rx 836.640 Channel 4 (409) Tx 882.270 Rx 837.270 Channel 5 (430) Tx 882.900 Rx 837.900 Channel 6 (451) Tx 883.530 Rx 838.530 Channel 7 (472) Tx 884.160 Rx 839.160 Channel 8 (493) Tx 884.790 Rx 839.790 Channel 9 (514) Tx 885.420 Rx 840.420 Channel 10 (535) Tx 886.050 Rx 841.050 Channel 11 (556) Tx 886.680 Rx 841.680 Channel 12 (577) Tx 887.310 Rx 842.310 Channel 13 (598) Tx 887.940 Rx 842.940 Channel 14 (619) Tx 888.570 Rx 843.570 Channel 15 (640) Tx 889.200 Rx 844.200 Channel 16 (661) Tx 889.830 Rx 844.830 Cell # 14 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (347) Tx 880.410 Rx 835.410 Channel 2 (368) Tx 881.040 Rx 836.040 Channel 3 (389) Tx 881.670 Rx 836.670 Channel 4 (410) Tx 882.300 Rx 837.300 Channel 5 (431) Tx 882.930 Rx 837.930 Channel 6 (452) Tx 883.560 Rx 838.560 Channel 7 (473) Tx 884.190 Rx 839.190 Channel 8 (494) Tx 884.820 Rx 839.820 Channel 9 (515) Tx 885.450 Rx 840.450 Channel 10 (536) Tx 886.080 Rx 841.080 Channel 11 (557) Tx 886.710 Rx 841.710 Channel 12 (578) Tx 887.340 Rx 842.340 Channel 13 (599) Tx 887.970 Rx 842.970 Channel 14 (620) Tx 888.600 Rx 843.600 Channel 15 (641) Tx 889.230 Rx 844.230 Channel 16 (662) Tx 889.860 Rx 844.860 Cell # 15 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (348) Tx 880.440 Rx 835.440 Channel 2 (369) Tx 881.070 Rx 836.070 Channel 3 (390) Tx 881.700 Rx 836.700 Channel 4 (411) Tx 882.330 Rx 837.330 Channel 5 (432) Tx 882.960 Rx 837.960 Channel 6 (453) Tx 883.590 Rx 838.590 Channel 7 (474) Tx 884.220 Rx 839.220 Channel 8 (495) Tx 884.850 Rx 839.850 Channel 9 (516) Tx 885.480 Rx 840.480 Channel 10 (537) Tx 886.110 Rx 841.110 Channel 11 (558) Tx 886.740 Rx 841.740 Channel 12 (579) Tx 887.370 Rx 842.370 Channel 13 (600) Tx 888.000 Rx 843.000 Channel 14 (621) Tx 888.630 Rx 843.630 Channel 15 (642) Tx 889.260 Rx 844.260 Channel 16 (663) Tx 889.890 Rx 844.890 Cell # 16 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (349) Tx 880.470 Rx 835.470 Channel 2 (370) Tx 881.100 Rx 836.100 Channel 3 (391) Tx 881.730 Rx 836.730 Channel 4 (412) Tx 882.360 Rx 837.360 Channel 5 (433) Tx 882.990 Rx 837.990 Channel 6 (454) Tx 883.620 Rx 838.620 Channel 7 (475) Tx 884.250 Rx 839.250 Channel 8 (496) Tx 884.880 Rx 839.880 Channel 9 (517) Tx 885.510 Rx 840.510 Channel 10 (538) Tx 886.140 Rx 841.140 Channel 11 (559) Tx 886.770 Rx 841.770 Channel 12 (580) Tx 887.400 Rx 842.400 Channel 13 (601) Tx 888.030 Rx 843.030 Channel 14 (622) Tx 888.660 Rx 843.660 Channel 15 (643) Tx 889.290 Rx 844.290 Channel 16 (664) Tx 889.920 Rx 844.920 Cell # 17 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (350) Tx 880.500 Rx 835.500 Channel 2 (371) Tx 881.130 Rx 836.130 Channel 3 (392) Tx 881.760 Rx 836.760 Channel 4 (413) Tx 882.390 Rx 837.390 Channel 5 (434) Tx 883.020 Rx 838.020 Channel 6 (455) Tx 883.650 Rx 838.650 Channel 7 (476) Tx 884.280 Rx 839.280 Channel 8 (497) Tx 884.910 Rx 839.910 Channel 9 (518) Tx 885.540 Rx 840.540 Channel 10 (539) Tx 886.170 Rx 841.170 Channel 11 (560) Tx 886.800 Rx 841.800 Channel 12 (581) Tx 887.430 Rx 842.430 Channel 13 (602) Tx 888.060 Rx 843.060 Channel 14 (623) Tx 888.690 Rx 843.690 Channel 15 (644) Tx 889.320 Rx 844.320 Channel 16 (665) Tx 889.950 Rx 844.950 Cell # 18 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (351) Tx 880.530 Rx 835.530 Channel 2 (372) Tx 881.160 Rx 836.160 Channel 3 (393) Tx 881.790 Rx 836.790 Channel 4 (414) Tx 882.420 Rx 837.420 Channel 5 (435) Tx 883.050 Rx 838.050 Channel 6 (456) Tx 883.680 Rx 838.680 Channel 7 (477) Tx 884.310 Rx 839.310 Channel 8 (498) Tx 884.940 Rx 839.940 Channel 9 (519) Tx 885.570 Rx 840.570 Channel 10 (540) Tx 886.200 Rx 841.200 Channel 11 (561) Tx 886.830 Rx 841.830 Channel 12 (582) Tx 887.460 Rx 842.460 Channel 13 (603) Tx 888.090 Rx 843.090 Channel 14 (624) Tx 888.720 Rx 843.720 Channel 15 (645) Tx 889.350 Rx 844.350 Channel 16 (666) Tx 889.980 Rx 844.980 Cell # 19 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (352) Tx 880.560 Rx 835.560 Channel 2 (373) Tx 881.190 Rx 836.190 Channel 3 (394) Tx 881.820 Rx 836.820 Channel 4 (415) Tx 882.450 Rx 837.450 Channel 5 (436) Tx 883.080 Rx 838.080 Channel 6 (457) Tx 883.710 Rx 838.710 Channel 7 (478) Tx 884.340 Rx 839.340 Channel 8 (499) Tx 884.970 Rx 839.970 Channel 9 (520) Tx 885.600 Rx 840.600 Channel 10 (541) Tx 886.230 Rx 841.230 Channel 11 (562) Tx 886.860 Rx 841.860 Channel 12 (583) Tx 887.490 Rx 842.490 Channel 13 (604) Tx 888.120 Rx 843.120 Channel 14 (625) Tx 888.750 Rx 843.750 Channel 15 (646) Tx 889.380 Rx 844.380 Cell # 20 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (353) Tx 880.590 Rx 835.590 Channel 2 (374) Tx 881.220 Rx 836.220 Channel 3 (395) Tx 881.850 Rx 836.850 Channel 4 (416) Tx 882.480 Rx 837.480 Channel 5 (437) Tx 883.110 Rx 838.110 Channel 6 (458) Tx 883.740 Rx 838.740 Channel 7 (479) Tx 884.370 Rx 839.370 Channel 8 (500) Tx 885.000 Rx 840.000 Channel 9 (521) Tx 885.630 Rx 840.630 Channel 10 (542) Tx 886.260 Rx 841.260 Channel 11 (563) Tx 886.890 Rx 841.890 Channel 12 (584) Tx 887.520 Rx 842.520 Channel 13 (605) Tx 888.150 Rx 843.150 Channel 14 (626) Tx 888.780 Rx 843.780 Channel 15 (647) Tx 889.410 Rx 844.410 Cell # 21 -------------------------------------------------- Channel 1 (354) Tx 880.620 Rx 835.620 Channel 2 (375) Tx 881.250 Rx 836.250 Channel 3 (396) Tx 881.880 Rx 836.880 Channel 4 (417) Tx 882.510 Rx 837.510 Channel 5 (438) Tx 883.140 Rx 838.140 Channel 6 (459) Tx 883.770 Rx 838.770 Channel 7 (480) Tx 884.400 Rx 839.400 Channel 8 (501) Tx 885.030 Rx 840.030 Channel 9 (522) Tx 885.660 Rx 840.660 Channel 10 (543) Tx 886.290 Rx 841.290 Channel 11 (564) Tx 886.920 Rx 841.920 Channel 12 (585) Tx 887.550 Rx 842.550 Channel 13 (606) Tx 888.180 Rx 843.180 Channel 14 (627) Tx 888.810 Rx 843.810 Channel 15 (648) Tx 889.440 Rx 844.440 =============================================================================== Cellular phone frequency and cell construction =============================================================================== __ __ \__/C \__/D \__ \__/G \__/A \__/ _/D \__/E \__/F \__ \__/B \__/C \__/ _/F \__/G \__/A \__ \__/D \__/E \__/ _/A \__/B \__/C \__ \__/ \__/ \__/ This represents how a cellular system might be laid out. Cells A and B never share a common border. Neither do B and C, A and G, etc. Cells that are next to each other are never assigned adjacent frequencies. They always differ by at least 60 kiloHertz. To track a mobile phone as it changes cells, let's put the mobile in a B cell. When the mobile switches frequencies, you know that he could only go to an D, E, F or G cell because A and C have adjacent frequencies. The two tables below will help you determine which channel cells can go next to each other. You can contact your local cellular phone company and see if they have any maps of the cells available. This is not a sure thing, but it couldn't hurt to try. Cells that can go next to each other: Cell Compatible cells A C, D, E, F B D, E, F, G C E, F, G, A D F, G, A, B E G, A, B, C F A, B, C, D G B, C, D, E Here is a frequency/cell layout chart. The cell frequencies are used by the cell site towers, and the mobile frequencies are the input frequencies used by the cars. Wireline company cell frequencies (BAND B) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 889.890 889.920 889.950 889.980 ─┐ 889.680 889.710 889.740 889.770 889.800 889.830 889.860 │ 889.470 889.500 889.530 889.560 889.590 889.620 889.650 │ 889.260 889.290 889.320 889.350 889.380 889.410 889.440 │ 889.050 889.080 889.110 889.140 889.170 889.200 889.230 │ 888.840 888.870 888.900 888.930 888.960 888.990 889.020 │ 888.630 888.660 888.690 888.720 888.750 888.780 888.810 │ 888.420 888.450 888.480 888.510 888.540 888.570 888.600 │ 888.210 888.240 888.270 888.300 888.330 888.360 888.390 │ 888.000 888.030 888.060 888.090 888.120 888.150 888.180 │ 887.790 887.820 887.850 887.880 887.910 887.940 887.970 │ 887.580 887.610 887.640 887.670 887.700 887.730 887.760 │ 887.370 887.400 887.430 887.460 887.490 887.520 887.550 │ 887.160 887.190 887.220 887.250 887.280 887.310 887.340 │ 886.950 886.980 887.010 887.040 887.070 887.100 887.130 │ 886.740 886.770 886.800 886.830 886.860 886.890 886.920 │ 886.530 886.560 886.590 886.620 886.650 886.680 886.710 │ 886.320 886.350 886.380 886.410 886.440 886.470 886.500 │Voice 886.110 886.140 886.170 886.200 886.230 886.260 886.290 │ 885.900 885.930 885.960 885.990 886.020 886.050 886.080 │ 885.690 885.720 885.750 885.780 885.810 885.840 885.870 │ 885.480 885.510 885.540 885.570 885.600 885.630 885.660 │ 885.270 885.300 885.330 885.360 885.390 885.420 885.450 │ 885.060 885.090 885.120 885.150 885.180 885.210 885.240 │ 884.850 884.880 884.910 884.940 884.970 885.000 885.030 │ 884.640 884.670 884.700 884.730 884.760 884.790 884.820 │ 884.430 884.460 884.490 884.520 884.550 884.580 884.610 │ 884.220 884.250 884.280 884.310 884.340 884.370 884.400 │ 884.010 884.040 884.070 884.100 884.130 884.160 884.190 │Channels 883.800 883.830 883.860 883.890 883.920 883.950 883.980 │ 883.590 883.620 883.650 883.680 883.710 883.740 883.770 │ 883.380 883.410 883.440 883.470 883.500 883.530 883.560 │ 883.170 883.200 883.230 883.260 883.290 883.320 883.350 │ 882.960 882.990 883.020 883.050 883.080 883.110 883.140 │ 882.750 882.780 882.810 882.840 882.870 882.900 882.930 │ 882.540 882.570 882.600 882.630 882.660 882.690 882.720 │ 882.330 882.360 882.390 882.420 882.450 882.480 882.510 │ 882.120 882.150 882.180 882.210 882.240 882.270 882.300 │ 881.910 881.940 881.970 882.000 882.030 882.060 882.090 │ 881.700 881.730 881.760 881.790 881.820 881.850 881.880 │ 881.490 881.520 881.550 881.580 881.610 881.640 881.670 │ 881.280 881.310 881.340 881.370 881.400 881.430 881.460 │ 881.070 881.100 881.130 881.160 881.190 881.220 881.250 │ 880.860 880.890 880.920 880.950 880.980 881.010 881.040 │ 880.650 880.680 880.710 880.740 880.770 880.800 880.830 ─┘ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 880.440 880.470 880.500 880.530 880.560 880.590 880.620 ─┐Digital 880.230 880.260 880.290 880.320 880.350 880.380 880.410 │Control 880.020 880.050 880.080 880.110 880.140 880.170 880.200 ─┘Channels Wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND B) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 844.890 844.920 844.950 844.980 ─┐ 844.680 844.710 844.740 844.770 844.800 844.830 844.860 │ 844.470 844.500 844.530 844.560 844.590 844.620 844.650 │ 844.260 844.290 844.320 844.350 844.380 844.410 844.440 │ 844.050 844.080 844.110 844.140 844.170 844.200 844.230 │ 843.840 843.870 843.900 843.930 843.960 843.990 844.020 │ 843.630 843.660 843.690 843.720 843.750 843.780 843.810 │ 843.420 843.450 843.480 843.510 843.540 843.570 843.600 │ 843.210 843.240 843.270 843.300 843.330 843.360 843.390 │ 843.000 843.030 843.060 843.090 843.120 843.150 843.180 │ 842.790 842.820 842.850 842.880 842.910 842.940 842.970 │ 842.580 842.610 842.640 842.670 842.700 842.730 842.760 │ 842.370 842.400 842.430 842.460 842.490 842.520 842.550 │ 842.160 842.190 842.220 842.250 842.280 842.310 842.340 │ 841.950 841.980 842.010 842.040 842.070 842.100 842.130 │ 841.740 841.770 841.800 841.830 841.860 841.890 841.920 │ 841.530 841.560 841.590 841.620 841.650 841.680 841.710 │ 841.320 841.350 841.380 841.410 841.440 841.470 841.500 │Voice 841.110 841.140 841.170 841.200 841.230 841.260 841.290 │ 840.900 840.930 840.960 840.990 841.020 841.050 841.080 │ 840.690 840.720 840.750 840.780 840.810 840.840 840.870 │ 840.480 840.510 840.540 840.570 840.600 840.630 840.660 │ 840.270 840.300 840.330 840.360 840.390 840.420 840.450 │ 840.060 840.090 840.120 840.150 840.180 840.210 840.240 │ 839.850 839.880 839.910 839.940 839.970 840.000 840.030 │ 839.640 839.670 839.700 839.730 839.760 839.790 839.820 │ 839.430 839.460 839.490 839.520 839.550 839.580 839.610 │ 839.220 839.250 839.280 839.310 839.340 839.370 839.400 │ 839.010 839.040 839.070 839.100 839.130 839.160 839.190 │Channels 838.800 838.830 838.860 838.890 838.920 838.950 838.980 │ 838.590 838.620 838.650 838.680 838.710 838.740 838.770 │ 838.380 838.410 838.440 838.470 838.500 838.530 838.560 │ 838.170 838.200 838.230 838.260 838.290 838.320 838.350 │ 837.960 837.990 838.020 838.050 838.080 838.110 838.140 │ 837.750 837.780 837.810 837.840 837.870 837.900 837.930 │ 837.540 837.570 837.600 837.630 837.660 837.690 837.720 │ 837.330 837.360 837.390 837.420 837.450 837.480 837.510 │ 837.120 837.150 837.180 837.210 837.240 837.270 837.300 │ 836.910 836.940 836.970 837.000 837.030 837.060 837.090 │ 836.700 836.730 836.760 836.790 836.820 836.850 836.880 │ 836.490 836.520 836.550 836.580 836.610 836.640 836.670 │ 836.280 836.310 836.340 836.370 836.400 836.430 836.460 │ 836.070 836.100 836.130 836.160 836.190 836.220 836.250 │ 835.860 835.890 835.920 835.950 835.980 836.010 836.040 │ 835.650 835.680 835.710 835.740 835.770 835.800 835.830 ─┘ ------------------------------------------------------------------- 835.440 835.470 835.500 835.530 835.560 835.590 835.620 ─┐Digital 835.230 835.260 835.290 835.320 835.350 835.380 835.410 │Control 835.020 835.050 835.080 835.110 835.140 835.170 835.200 ─┘Channels =============================================================================== Non-wireline company cell frequencies (BAND A) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 879.900 879.930 879.960 879.990 ─┐Digital 879.690 879.720 879.750 879.780 879.810 879.840 879.870 │Control 879.480 879.510 879.540 879.570 879.600 879.630 879.660 │Channels ------------------------------------- 879.390 879.420 879.450 ─┘ 879.270 879.300 879.330 879.360 --------------------------- ─┐ 879.060 879.090 879.120 879.150 879.180 879.210 879.240 │ 878.850 878.880 878.910 878.940 878.970 879.000 879.030 │ 878.640 878.670 878.700 878.730 878.760 878.790 878.820 │ 878.430 878.460 878.490 878.520 878.550 878.580 878.610 │ 878.220 878.250 878.280 878.310 878.340 878.370 878.400 │ 878.010 878.040 878.070 878.100 878.130 878.160 878.190 │ 877.800 877.830 877.860 877.890 877.920 877.950 877.980 │ 877.590 877.620 877.650 877.680 877.710 877.740 877.770 │ 877.380 877.410 877.440 877.470 877.500 877.530 877.560 │ 877.170 877.200 877.230 877.260 877.290 877.320 877.350 │ 876.960 876.990 877.020 877.050 877.080 877.110 877.140 │ 876.750 876.780 876.810 876.840 876.870 876.900 876.930 │ 876.540 876.570 876.600 876.630 876.660 876.690 876.720 │ 876.330 876.360 876.390 876.420 876.450 876.480 876.510 │ 876.120 876.150 876.180 876.210 876.240 876.270 876.300 │ 875.910 875.940 875.970 876.000 876.030 876.060 876.090 │ 875.700 875.730 875.760 875.790 875.820 875.850 875.880 │ Voice 875.490 875.520 875.550 875.580 875.610 875.640 875.670 │ 875.280 875.310 875.340 875.370 875.400 875.430 875.460 │ 875.070 875.100 875.130 875.160 875.190 875.220 875.250 │ 874.860 874.890 874.920 874.950 874.980 875.010 875.040 │ 874.650 874.680 874.710 874.740 874.770 874.800 874.830 │ 874.440 874.470 874.500 874.530 874.560 874.590 874.620 │ 874.230 874.260 874.290 874.320 874.350 874.380 874.410 │ 874.020 874.050 874.080 874.110 874.140 874.170 874.200 │ 873.810 873.840 873.870 873.900 873.930 873.960 873.990 │ 873.600 873.630 873.660 873.690 873.720 873.750 873.780 │ 873.390 873.420 873.450 873.480 873.510 873.540 873.570 │ Channels 873.180 873.210 873.240 873.270 873.300 873.330 873.360 │ 872.970 873.000 873.030 873.060 873.090 873.120 873.150 │ 872.760 872.790 872.820 872.850 872.880 872.910 872.940 │ 872.550 872.580 872.610 872.640 872.670 872.700 872.730 │ 872.340 872.370 872.400 872.430 872.460 872.490 872.520 │ 872.130 872.160 872.190 872.220 872.250 872.280 872.310 │ 871.920 871.950 871.980 872.010 872.040 872.070 872.100 │ 871.710 871.740 871.770 871.800 871.830 871.860 871.890 │ 871.500 871.530 871.560 871.590 871.620 871.650 871.680 │ 871.290 871.320 871.350 871.380 871.410 871.440 871.470 │ 871.080 871.110 871.140 871.170 871.200 871.230 871.260 │ 870.870 870.900 870.930 870.960 870.990 871.020 871.050 │ 870.660 870.690 870.720 870.750 870.780 870.810 870.840 │ 870.450 870.480 870.510 870.540 870.570 870.600 870.630 │ 870.240 870.270 870.300 870.330 870.360 870.390 870.420 │ 870.030 870.060 870.090 870.120 870.150 870.180 870.210 ─┘ Non-wireline company mobile frequencies (BAND A) CELL A CELL B CELL C CELL D CELL E CELL F CELL G ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= 834.900 834.930 834.960 834.990 ─┐Digital 834.690 834.720 834.750 834.780 834.810 834.840 834.870 │Control 834.480 834.510 834.540 834.570 834.600 834.630 834.660 │Channels ------------------------------------- 834.390 834.420 834.450 ─┘ 834.270 834.300 834.330 834.360 --------------------------- ─┐ 834.060 834.090 834.120 834.150 834.180 834.210 834.240 │ 833.850 833.880 833.910 833.940 833.970 834.000 834.030 │ 833.640 833.670 833.700 833.730 833.760 833.790 833.820 │ 833.430 833.460 833.490 833.520 833.550 833.580 833.610 │ 833.220 833.250 833.280 833.310 833.340 833.370 833.400 │ 833.010 833.040 833.070 833.100 833.130 833.160 833.190 │ 832.800 832.830 832.860 832.890 832.920 832.950 832.980 │ 832.590 832.620 832.650 832.680 832.710 832.740 832.770 │ 832.380 832.410 832.440 832.470 832.500 832.530 832.560 │ 832.170 832.200 832.230 832.260 832.290 832.320 832.350 │ 831.960 831.990 832.020 832.050 832.080 832.110 832.140 │ 831.750 831.780 831.810 831.840 831.870 831.900 831.930 │ 831.540 831.570 831.600 831.630 831.660 831.690 831.720 │ 831.330 831.360 831.390 831.420 831.450 831.480 831.510 │ 831.120 831.150 831.180 831.210 831.240 831.270 831.300 │ 830.910 830.940 830.970 831.000 831.030 831.060 831.090 │ 830.700 830.730 830.760 830.790 830.820 830.850 830.880 │ Voice 830.490 830.520 830.550 830.580 830.610 830.640 830.670 │ 830.280 830.310 830.340 830.370 830.400 830.430 830.460 │ 830.070 830.100 830.130 830.160 830.190 830.220 830.250 │ 829.860 829.890 829.920 829.950 829.980 830.010 830.040 │ 829.650 829.680 829.710 829.740 829.770 829.800 829.830 │ 829.440 829.470 829.500 829.530 829.560 829.590 829.620 │ 829.230 829.260 829.290 829.320 829.350 829.380 829.410 │ 829.020 829.050 829.080 829.110 829.140 829.170 829.200 │ 828.810 828.840 828.870 828.900 828.930 828.960 828.990 │ 828.600 828.630 828.660 828.690 828.720 828.750 828.780 │ 828.390 828.420 828.450 828.480 828.510 828.540 828.570 │ Channels 828.180 828.210 828.240 828.270 828.300 828.330 828.360 │ 827.970 828.000 828.030 828.060 828.090 828.120 828.150 │ 827.760 827.790 827.820 827.850 827.880 827.910 827.940 │ 827.550 827.580 827.610 827.640 827.670 827.700 827.730 │ 827.340 827.370 827.400 827.430 827.460 827.490 827.520 │ 827.130 827.160 827.190 827.220 827.250 827.280 827.310 │ 826.920 826.950 826.980 827.010 827.040 827.070 827.100 │ 826.710 826.740 826.770 826.800 826.830 826.860 826.890 │ 826.500 826.530 826.560 826.590 826.620 826.650 826.680 │ 826.290 826.320 826.350 826.380 826.410 826.440 826.470 │ 826.080 826.110 826.140 826.170 826.200 826.230 826.260 │ 825.870 825.900 825.930 825.960 825.990 826.020 826.050 │ 825.660 825.690 825.720 825.750 825.780 825.810 825.840 │ 825.450 825.480 825.510 825.540 825.570 825.600 825.630 │ 825.240 825.270 825.300 825.330 825.360 825.390 825.420 │ 825.030 825.060 825.090 825.120 825.150 825.180 825.210 ─┘ Monitoring of the base sites is obviously going to be easier than monitoring the mobiles. The cell base sites are towers (usually blue) with a triangle shaped "head" on top, and sporting a couple of what appear to be vertical antennas. These base sites have a range of 3-5 miles. If you take a look at the honeycomb diagram, you can see how they are laid out. The cell transmitter is in the middle of the cell. It is possible to hear many, most, or all of the cells in your city, depending on your location. The closer you live to a boundary, the greater the chances of your being able to receive more cells. Due to the nature of radio signals, the actual cell shape is more or less round. However, the hexagon shape lends itself better to show how the system is laid out. With a circular coverage area, there will be some overlapping between adjacent cells. __ __ \__/C \__/D \__ \__/G \__/A \__/ _/D \__/E \__/F \__ \__/B \__*C \__/ _/F \__/G \__/A \__ \__/D \__/E \__/ _/A \__/B \__/C \__ \__/ \__/ \__/ If, for example, you live near the asterisk (*) in the above diagram, you will be able go easily hear the G, C, E, and A cells you're near. Since the maximum _practical_ range of a cell is 3-5 miles, you'll be able to hear them a bit farther away. However, due to the nature of the FM transceivers at the cell sites (they capture only the _strongest_ signal), you should be able to hear all seven cells. Which _one_ of each cell you hear will depend on your location and the strength of the received signal. In the above diagram, you'll most likely hear the F cell in the upper right, rather than the one on the left. Mobile reception is almost a waste of time unless you have an outdoor antenna. And, since the mobile will be repeated on the cell site, it's better to listen to the cell frequencies. You may not be able to hear both sides of the conversation if you listen only to the mobile frequencies!!! It is useful, however, for determining which channel cell you're in. If you use the antenna that came with the scanner, mobile range will be decreased down to 1 or 2 miles. By checking the scanner readout against the cell list above (825.030-844.980 MHz), you can tell what cell the mobile is in. This is also useful on the cell site frequencies. If you hear someone say, "I'm at the corner of highway FF and 37," and you know where the cell site antenna is in that area, you can check the frequency listing above and determine what cell that antenna belongs to. ******************************************************************************* Where to get What you NEED! Obviously, a device is needed to download all those ESN/MINs etc. off the cellular airwaves. Heres the stuff I found so far that is under $2000 (This ain't a cheap hobby) CCS Company, P.O. Box 11191, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (Mark 414-781-2482) They sell everything ya need for $3-400. Kits are cheaper. Their device interfaces between a 800 mhz capable scanner & your computer. Make sure you tell them you want the REVERSE model DDI. (this tis what I use) Curtis Electro Devices, 1235 Pear Ave, Mountain View,CA 94043 800-332-2790 Fax 415-964-3574 They sell an ESN reader for $1295 that can read ESN\MIN\etc. but only from a short distance (Max= 30 ft.) They also sell a security model for $1595 and a nam programmer for $1195. They publish a book called NAMFAX for $179 that tells ya how to re-program hundreds of different cellulars through the keypad on the handset. (Note-You can't reprogram ESNs through the keypap unless you re-write the phones software.) Wavetek Communications Div., 5808 Churchman Bypass, Indianapolis, IN 46203-6109, 800-245-6356 or 317-788-5965 They sell a "Cellular I.D. Tester" thats real similiar to Curtis's ESN reader but supposedly has a longer range. price= $1495. Needham Electronics, 4539 Orange Grove Ave., Sacramento, CA 95841 916-924-8037 They sell eprom burners for $139.95 (I bought one myself) Motorola, 1-800-433-5202 They sell a Cellular service manual thats used in their cellular service classes for $30. Ask for the Order Fullfillment dept: Item # 68-093-00a60. This manual tells it all! An absolute must to have. (Remember-ya can use your credit card for many items! hehe) Bishop Co: 800-829-0572 They publish books similiar to Curtis's Namfax. send for catalog ****************************************************************** Cellular Security Well we know a properly cloned cell phone is virtually impossible to detect- or is it? Security companies rely on matching call patterns of subscribers historys to current use. I.E. when 200 calls to Bum Fuck Egypt show up in a day or 80 long distance calls to Culman Alabama show up in a short period, all kinds of Flags & whistles go off! The security companies will even keep records of people that call numbers that have been previously called by Tumbled phones & flag the phone calling that number as a potential fraudulent phone. These flags can be set go go off by a number of parameters: Number of LD calls per Hr/Day/mo, etc. Another method they use is when the real phone places a call & the Tumbled phone places another call soon afterwards, but from a distance from the 1st call thats impossible to travel in such a short period of time. I.E. At 5 P.M. friday phone A calls from Manhatten & completes call at 5.10 p.m. At 5.12 P.M. Cloned phone B calls from Queens. No-one can travel those distances in 2 minutes, thus that ESN/MIN is tagged as a Clone by the phone company. These databases are just now starting to be used in larger cities. Some software will track a flagged cell phone from cell site to cell site. Commonly used discrepancies cell co software looks for are different ESNs, Manufacturer, model, SCMs, etc. that are broadcast by the cellular phone on its REVERSE channel. (If one captures all that data off the Reverse channel & incorporates it in the CLONED phone, detection via this method becomes nearly impossible.) Some daring souls have been known to use fake ID & Cards to even subscribe to a cellular service, then burn out the phone before the first months bill arrives to the unsuspecting real person. **************************************************************************** Conclusion The future for cellular fraud is wide open. As the secret software of the over 300 brands of cellular phones in existance becomes "Cracked" and re-written and spread via the underground, Fraud will increase like Wildfire. Virtually nothing can be done to stop the informed phone phreak as he will change ESN/MINs, etc. easily and frequently. A new era not seen since the 2600 hz tone was discovered is just now dawning via cellular phreaking. Nuff Said, Bootleg P.S. Since I'm lettin the cat out of the bag for the 1st time here, I hereby dub the box needed to read REVERSE channels the BOO Box! (Shit- after 12 years I finally get to name a box.) hehe =============================================================================== The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 and CMT =============================================================================== The ECPA, passed in 1986, is partly responsible for the extreme interest in CMT monitoring. After all, if you tell someone they can't listen to these phone calls, they'll immediately want to do so. "There must be _something_ going on there that's either interesting or important. Why else would they want to keep us from listening?" seems to be the predominant reaction. Be assured that it is illegal under the ECPA to listen to cellular phone calls. This law was passed mainly to satisfy the CMT manufacturers. They can now tell their customers that their conversations are 'protected by federal law.' However, when this law was drawn up, it was obviously felt to be too narrow in its views, since it protected only one service. So it was amended to include various services, such as microwaves, some satellites, broadcast STL links (studio-transmitter links), and the descrambling of scrambled signals. However, from the very beginning, the government has shown an extremely bored attitude when it comes to the ECPA. There is virtually no attempt at enforcement, unless it's a case involving blackmail, or an overt attempt is being made to provide radios with CMT-specific frequencies. In the latter case, a dealer was modifying the radios he was selling. After a government visit, he agreed not to modify the radios, but he was allowed to include instructions on how to make the modification. With the Pro-2005 and Pro-2006, this consists of opening the radio and clipping one diode, an operation that takes all of 15 minutes, including disassembly. What does all this mean? You can receive any frequency you wish. There is literally no way to tell what you're listening to in the privacy of your home. Your scanner (as well as EVERY radio) _does_ transmit an extremely small amount of RF energy from the local oscillator, but unless the radio is in very bad shape, that energy won't go past 40 or 50 feet. The "gummint" would have to drive around in detection vans with beam antennas, and with 100,000 scanner owners, it's an extremely good bet that they're not even going to consider thinking about the merest possibility that someone might put this idea forward to be comtemplated. They've got more important stuff to worry about. What it comes down to is this: listen to whatever you want to, but don't divulge it or use the information for personal or illegal gain. That will get you into deep doo-doo in double-quick time. Most people have the opinion that if it's unscrambled, and it's passing freely through their home and body, that they have the right to receive it. This sounds like good solid thinking. The laws of this land provide for just compensation to individuals. Perhaps a few bills to CMT companies for transmission rights would help to remove this silly law from the books. =============================================================================== The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 =============================================================================== February 2, 1987 TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PART I. CRIMES Chapter Sec. * * * General provisions............................................. 1 * * * 119. Wire and electronic communications interception and interception of oral communications................. 2510 * * * 121. Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional Records Access...................................... 2701 * * * PART II. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 201. General provisions.................................. 3001 * * * 206. Pen Registers and Trap and Trace Devices............ 3121 * * * CHAPTER 65 - MALICIOUS MISCHIEF Sec. * * * 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite. * * * { 1367. Interference with the operation of a satellite (a) Whoever, without the authority of the satellite operator, intentionally or maliciously interferes with the authorized operation of a communications or weather satellite or obstructs or hinders any satellite transmission shall be fined in accordance with this title or imprisoned not more than ten years of both. (b) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency or of an intelligence agency of the United States. * * * CHAPTER 109 - SEARCHES AND SEIZURES * * * { 2232. Destruction or removal of property to prevent seizure (a) Physical Interference With Search. -- Whoever, before, during, or after seizure of any property by any person authorized to make searches and seizures, in order to prevent the seizure or securing of any goods, wares, or merchandise by such person, staves, breaks, throws overboard, destroys, or removes the same, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned more than five years, or both. (b) Notice of Search. -- Whoever, having knowledge that any person authorized to make searches and seizures has been authorized or is otherwise likely to make a search or seizure, in order to prevent the authorized seizing or securing of any per- son, goods, wares, merchandise or other property, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible search or seizure to any person shall be fined not more than $100,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (c) Notice of Certain Electronic Surveillance. -- Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization under chapter 119 to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such interception, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible interception to any person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Whoever, having knowledge that a Federal officer has been authorized or has applied for authorization to conduct electronic surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (50 U.S.C. 1801, et seq.), in order to obstruct, impede, or prevent such activity, gives notice or attempts to give notice of the possible activity to any person shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. * * * CHAPTER 119 -- WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS INTERCEPTION AND INTERCEPTION OF ORAL COMMUNICATIONS Sec. 2510. Definitions. 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications prohibited. 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited. 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting devices. 2514. Immunity of witnesses. 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral or electronic communications. 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized. 2521. Injunction against illegal interception. { 2510. Definitions As used in this chapter -- (1) "wire communication" means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the use of facilities for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the point of origin and the point of reception (including the use of such connection in a switching station) furnished or operated by any person engaged in providing or operating such facilities for the transmission of interstate or foreign communications or communications affecting interstate or foreign commerce and such term includes any electronic storage of such communication, but such term does not include the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit; (2) "oral communication" means any oral communication uttered by a person exhibiting an expectation that such communication is not subject to interception under circumstances justifying such expectation, but such term does not include any electronic communication; * * * (4) "intercept" means the aural or other acquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication through the use of any electronic, mechanical, or other device. (5) "electronic mechanical, or other device" means any device or apparatus which can be used to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication other than -- (a) any telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communication service in the ordinary course of its business and being used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of its business or furnished by such subscriber or user for connection to the facilities of such service and used in the ordinary course of its business; or (ii) being used by a communications common carrier in the ordinary course of its business, or by an investigative or law enforcement officer in the ordinary course of his duties; * * * (8) "contents", when used with respect to any wire, oral, or electronic communication, includes any information concerning the substance, purport, or meaning of that communication; (9) "Judge of competent jurisdiction" means -- (a) a judge of a United States district court or a United States court of appeals; and (b) a judge of any court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State who is authorized by a statute of that State to enter orders authorizing interceptions of wire, oral, or electronic communications; (10) "communication common carrier" shall have the same meaning which is given the term "common carrier" by section 153(h) of title 47 of the United States Code; (11) "aggrieved person" means a person who was a party to any intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication or a person against whom the interception was directed; (12) "electronic communication" means any transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photo optical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce, but does not include -- (A) the radio portion of a cordless telephone communication that is transmitted between the cordless telephone handset and the base unit; (B) any wire or oral communication; (C) any communication made through a tone-only paging device; or (D) any communication from a tracking device (as defined in section 3117 of this title); (13) "user" means any person or entity who -- (A) uses an electronic communication service; and (B) is duly authorized by the provider of such service to engage in such use; (14) "electronic communications system" means any wire, radio, electromagnetic, photooptical or photoelectronic facilities for the transmission of electronic communications, and any computer facilities or related electronic equipment for the electronic storage of such communications; (15) "electronic communication service" means any service which provides to users thereof the ability to send or receive wire or electronic communications; (16) "readily accessible to the general public" means, with respect to a radio communication, that such communication is not -- (A) scrambled or encrypted; (B) transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of such communication; (C) carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (D) transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system communication; or (E) transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25, subpart D, E, or F of part 74, or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio; (17) "electronic storage" means -- (A) any temporary, intermediate storage of a wire or electronic communication incidental to the electronic transmission thereof; and (B) any storage of such communication by an electronic communication service for purposes of backup protection of such communication; and (18) "aural transfer" means a transfer containing the human voice at any point between and including the point of origin and the point of reception. { 2511. Interception and disclosure of wire or oral communications prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any person who-- (a) intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral, or electronic communication; (b) intentionally uses, endeavors to use, or procures any other person to use or endeavor to use any electronic, mechanical, or other device to intercept any oral communication when -- (i) such device is affixed to, or otherwise transmits a signal through, a wire, cable, or other like connection used in wire communication; or (ii) such device transmits communications by radio, or interferes with the transmission of such communication; or (iii) such person knows, or has reason to know, that such device or any component thereof has been sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or (iv) such use or endeavor to use (A) takes place on the premises of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (B) obtains or is for the purpose of obtaining information relating to the operations of any business or other commercial establishment the operations of which affect interstate or foreign commerce; or (v) such person acts in the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States; (c) intentionally discloses, or endeavors to disclose, to any other person the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or have reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; or (d) intentionally uses, or endeavors to use, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, knowing or having reason to know that the information was obtained through the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication in violation of this subsection; shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) or shall be subject to suit as provided in subsection (5). (2)(a)(i) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an operator of a switchboard, or an officer, employee, or agent of a provider of wire or electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in the transmission of a wire communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of his employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service, except that a provider of wire communication service to the public shall not utilize service observing or random monitoring except for mechanical or service quality control checks. (ii) Notwithstanding any other law, providers of wire or electronic communication service, their officers, employees, and agents, landlords, custodians, or other persons, are authorized to provide information facilities, or technical assistance to persons authorized by law to intercept wire, oral, or electronic communications or to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, if such provider its officers, employees, or agents, land- lord, custodian, or other specified person has been provided with -- (A) a court order directing such assistance signed by the authorizing judge, or (B) a certification in writing by a person specified in section 2518(7) of this title or the Attorney General of the United States that no warrant or court order is required by law, that all statutory requirements have been met, and that the specified assistance is required. setting forth the period of time during which the provision of the information, facilities, or technical assistance is authorized and specifying the information, facilities, or technical assistance required. No provider of wire or electronic communication service officer, employee, or agent thereof, or landlord, custodian, or other specified person shall disclose the existence of any interception or surveillance of the device used to accomplish the interception or surveillance with respect to which the person has been furnished an order or certification under this subparagraph, except as may otherwise be required by legal process and then only after prior notification to the Attorney General or to the principal prosecuting attorney of a State or any political subdivision of a State, as may be appropriate. Any such disclosure, shall render such person liable for the civil damages provided for in section 2520. No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service its officers, employees, or agents, landlord, custodian, or other specified person for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order or certification under this chapter. (b) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for an officer, employee, or agent of the Federal Communications Commission, in the normal course of his employment and in discharge of the monitoring responsibilities exercised by the Commission in the enforcement of chapter 5 of title 57 of the United States Code, to intercept a wire or electronic communication, or oral communication transmitted by radio, or to disclose or use the information thereby obtained. (c) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication, where such person is a party to the communication or one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception. (d) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not acting under color of law to intercept a wire, oral, or electronic communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title or section 705 or 706 of the Communications Act of 1934, it shall not be unlawful for an office, employee, or agent of the United States in the normal course of his official duty to conduct electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, as authorized by that Act. (f) Nothing contained in this chapter or chapter 121, or section 705 of the Communications Act of 1934, shall be deemed to affect the acquisition by the United States Government of foreign intelligence information from international or foreign communication, or foreign intelligence activities conducted in accordance with otherwise applicable Federal law involving a foreign electronic communications system, utilizing a means other than electronic surveillance as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and procedures in this chapter and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 shall be the exclusive means by which electronic surveillance, as defined in section 101 of such Act, and the interception of domestic wire and oral communications may be conducted. (g) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter or chapter 121 of this title for any person -- (i) to intercept or access an electronic communication made through an electronic communication system that is configured so that such electronic communication is readily accessible to the general public; (ii) to intercept any radio communication which is transmitted -- (I) by any station for the use of the general public, or that relates to ships, aircraft, vehicles, or persons in distress; (II) by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense private land mobile, or public safety communications system, including police and fire, readily accessible to the general public; (III) by a station operating on an authorized frequency within the bands allocated to the amateur, citizens band, or general mobile radio services; or (IV) by any marine or aeronautical communications system; (iii) to engage in any conduct which -- (I) is prohibited by section 633 of the Communications Act of 1934; or (II) is excepted from the application of section 705(a) of the Communications Act of 1934 by section 705(b) of that Act; (iv) to intercept any wire or electronic communication the transmission of which is causing harmful interference to any lawfully operating station or consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of such interference; or (v) for other users of the same frequency to intercept any radio communication made through a system that utilizes frequencies monitored by individuals engaged in the provision or the use of such system, if such communication is not scrambled or encrypted. (h) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter -- (i) to use a pen register or a trap and trace device (as those terms are defined for the purposes of chapter 206 (relating to pen registers and trap and trace devices) of this title); or (ii) for a provider of electronic communication service to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire or electronic communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of such service. (3)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection a person or entity providing an electronic communication service to the public shall not intentionally divulge the contents of any communication (other than one to such person or entity, or an agent thereof) while in transmission on that service to any person or entity other than an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient. (b) A person or entity providing electronic communication service to the public may divulge the contents of any such communication -- (i) as otherwise authorized in section 2511(2)(a) or 2517 of this title; (ii) with the lawful consent of the originator or any addressee or intended recipient of such communication; (iii) to a person employed or authorized, or whose facilities are used, to forward such communication to its destination; or (iv) which were inadvertently obtained by the service provider and which appear to pertain to the commission of a crime, if such divulgence is made to a law enforcement agency. (4)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection or in subsection (5), whoever violates subsection (1) of this section shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (b) If the offense is a first offense under paragraph (a) of this subsection and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, and the wire or electronic communication with respect to which the offense under paragraph (a) is a radio communication that is not scrambled or encrypted, then -- (i) If the communication is not the radio portion of a cellular telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service communication or a paging service communication, and the conduct is not that described in subsection (5), the offender shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, and (ii) if the communication is the radio portion of a cellular telephone communication, a public land mobile radio service communication or a paging service communication, the offender shall be fined not more than $500. (c) Conduct otherwise an offense under this subsection that consists of or relates to the interception of a satellite transmission that is not encrypted or scrambled and that is transmitted -- (i) to a broadcasting station for purposes of retransmission to the general public; or (ii) as an audio subcarrier intended for redistribution to facilities open to the public, but not including data transmissions or telephone calls, is not an offense under this subsection unless the conduct is for the purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial gain. (5)(a)(i) If the communication is -- (A) a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of that communication and is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain; or (B) a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct in violation of this chapter is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain. then the person who engages in such conduct shall be subject to suit by the Federal Government in a court of competent jurisdiction. (ii) In an action under this subsection -- (A) if the violation of this chapter is a first offense for the person under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) and such person has not been found liable in a civil action under section 2520 of this title, the Federal Government shall be entitled to appropriate injunctive relief; and (B) if the violation of this chapter is a second or subsequent offense under paragraph (a) of subsection (4) or such person has been found liable in any prior civil action under section 2520, the person shall be subject to a mandatory $500 civil fine. (b) The court may use any means within its authority to enforce an injunction issued under paragraph (ii)(A), and shall impose a civil fine of not less than $500 for each violation of such an injunction, { 2512. Manufacture, distribution, possession, and advertising of wire or oral communication intercepting devices prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, any person who intentionally -- (a) sends through the mail, or sends or carriers in interstate or foreign commerce, any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications; (b) manufacturers, assembles, possesses, or sells any electronic, mechanical, or other device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, and that such device or any component thereof has been or will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce; or (c) places in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publication any advertisement of-- (i) any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications; or (ii) any other electronic, mechanical, or other device, where such advertisement promotes the use of such device for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, knowing or having reason to know that such advertisement will be sent through the mail or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (2) It shall not be unlawful under this section for- (a) a provider of wire or electronic communication service or an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, such a provider, in the normal course of the business of providing that wire or electronic communication service, or (b) an officer, agent, or employee of, or a person under contract with, the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, in the normal course of the activities of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, to send through the mail, send or carry in interstate or foreign commerce, or manufacture, assemble, possess, or sell any electronic, mechanical, or other device knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of the surreptitious interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications. { 2513. Confiscation of wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepting devices Any electronic, mechanical, or other device used, sent, carried, manufactured, assembled, possessed, sold, or advertised in violation of section 2511 or section+ 2512 of this chapter may be seized and forfeited to the United States. All provisions of law relating to (1) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violations of the customs laws contained in title 19 of the United States Code, (2) the disposition of such vessels, - vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from the sale thereof, (3) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, (4) the compromise of claims, and (5) the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures, shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this section; except that such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the provisions of the customs laws contained in title 19 of the United States Code shall be performed with respect to seizure and forfeiture of electronic, mechanical, or other intercepting devices under this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be authorized or designated for that purpose of the Attorney General. { 2515. Prohibition of use as evidence of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications Whenever any wire, oral, or electronic communications has been intercepted, no part of the contents of such communication and no evidence derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof if the disclosure of that information would be in violation of this chapter. { 2516. Authorization for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) The Attorney General, Deputy Attorney General, Associate Attorney General, any Assistant Attorney General, any acting Assistant Attorney General, or any Deputy Assistant Attorney General in the Criminal Division specially designated by the Attorney General, may authorize an application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire of oral communications by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or a Federal agency having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of- (a) any offense punishable by death or by imprisonment for more than one year under sections 2274 through 2277 of title 42 of the United States Code (relating to the enforcement of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954), section 2284 of title 42 of the United States Code (relating to sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel), or under the following chapters of this title: chapter 37 (relating to espionage), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), chapter 115 (relating to treason), chapter 192 (relating to riots), chapter 65 (relating to malicious matter mischief), chapter 111 (relating to destruction of vessels), or chapter 81 (relating to piracy); (b) a violation of section 186 or section 501(c) of title 29, United States Code (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to labor organizations), or any offense which involves murders, kidnapping, robbery, or extortion, and which is punishable under this title; c) any offense which is punishable under the following section of this title: section 201 (bribery of public officials and witnesses), section 224 (bribery in sporting contests), subsection (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of section 844 (unlawful use of explosives), section 1084 (transmission of wagering information), section 751 (relating to escape), sections 1503, 1512, and 1513 (influencing or injuring an officer, juror, or witness generally), section 1510 (obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1751 (Presidential and Presidential staff assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 1951 (interference with commerce by threats or violence), section 1952 (interstate and foreign travel or transportation in aid of racketeering enterprises), section 1952A (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder for hire), section 1952B (relating to violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity), section 1954 (offer acceptance, or solicitation to influence operations of employee benefit plan), section 1955 (prohibition of business enterprises of gambling), section 659 (theft from interstate shipment), section 664 (embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), section 1343 (fraud by wire, radio, or television), section 2252 or 2253 (sexual exploitation of children), Section 2251 and 2252 (sexual exploitation of children), section 2312, 2313, 2314, and 2315 (interstate transportation of stolen property), the second section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts), section 1203 (relating to hostage taking), section 1029 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section 3146 (relating to penalty for failure to appear), section 3521(b)(3) (relating to witness relocation and assistance), section 32 (relating to destruction of aircraft or aircraft facilities), section 1963 violations with respect to racketeer influenced and corrupt organizations), section 115 (relating to threatening or retaliating against a Federal official), the section in chapter 65 relating to destruction of an energy facility, and section 1341 (relating to mail fraud), section 351 (violations with respect to congressional, Cabinet, or Supreme Court assassination, kidnapping, and assault), section 831 (relating to prohibited transaction involving nuclear materials), section 33 (relating to destruction of motor vehicles or motor vehicle facilities), or section 1992 (relating to wrecking trains); (d) any offense involving counterfeiting punishable under section 471, 472, or 473 of this title; (e) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title 11 or the manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana, or other dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States; (f) any offense including extortionate credit transactions under sections 892, 893, or 894 of this title; (g) a violation of section 5322 of title 31, United States Code (dealing with the reporting of currency transactions); (h) any felony violation of sections 511 and 2512 (relating to interception and disclosure of certain communications and to certain intercepting devices) of this title; (i) any violation of section 1679(c)(2) (relating to destruction of a natural gas pipeline) or subsection (i) or (n) of the United States Code; (j) any criminal violation of section 2778 of title 22 (relating to the Arms Export Control Act); or (k) the location of any fugitive from justice from an offense described in this section; or (l) any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses. (2) The principal prosecuting attorney of any State, or the principal prosecuting attorney of any political subdivision thereof, if such attorney is authorized by a statute of that State to make application to a State court judge of competent jurisdiction for an order authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications, may apply to such judge for, and such judge may grant in conformity with section 2518 of this chapter and with the applicable State statute an order authorizing, or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications by investigative or law enforcement of officers having responsibility for the investigation of the offense as to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of the commission of the offense of murder, kidnapping, gambling, robbery, bribery, extortion, or dealing in narcotic drugs, marijuana or other dangerous drugs, or other crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year, designated in any applicable State statute authorizing such interception, or any conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing offenses. (3) Any attorney for the Government (as such term is defined for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure) may authorize an application to a Federal judge of competent jurisdiction for, and such judge may grant, in conformity with section 2518 of this title, an order authorizing or approving the interception of electronic communications by an investigative or law enforcement officer having responsibility for the investigation of the offense s to which the application is made, when such interception may provide or has provided evidence of any Federal felony. { 2517. Authorization for disclosure and use of intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communication (1) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by any means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom may disclose such contents to another investigative or law enforcement officer to the extent that such disclosure is appropriate to the proper performance of the official duties of the officer making or receiving the disclosure. (2) Any investigative or law enforcement officer who, by an means authorized by this chapter, has obtained knowledge of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom any use such contents to the extent such use is appropriate to the proper performance of his official duties. (3) Any person who has received, by any means authorized by this chapter, any information concerning a wire, oral, or electronic communication, or evidence derived therefrom intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter may disclose the contents of that communication or such derivative evidence while giving testimony under oath or affirmation in any proceeding held under the authority of the United States of of any State or political subdivision thereof. (4) No otherwise privileged wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted in accordance with, or in violation of, the provisions of this chapter shall lose its privileged character. (5) When an investigative or law enforcement officer, while engaged in intercepting wire or oral communications in the manner authorized herein, intercepts wire, oral, or electronic communications relating to offenses other than those specified in the order of authorization or approval, the contents thereof, and evidence derived therefrom, may be disclosed or used as provided in subsections (1) and (2) of this section. Such contents and any evidence derived therefrom may be used under subsection (3) of this section when authorized or approved by a judge of competent jurisdiction where such judge finds on subsequent application that the contents were otherwise intercepted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Such application shall be made as soon as practicable. { 2518. Procedure for interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) Each application for an order authorizing or approving the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge of competent jurisdiction and shall state the applicant's authority to make such application. Each application shall include the following information: (a) the identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer making the application, and the officer authorizing the application; (b) a full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant, to justify his belief that an order should be issued, including (i) details as to the particular offense that has been, is being, or is about to be committed, (ii) except as provided in subsection (11), a particular description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communication is to be intercepted, (iii) a particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted, (iv) the identity of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted; (c) a full and complete statement as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (d) a statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained. If the nature of the investigation is such that the authorization for interception should not automatically terminate when the described type of communication has been first obtained, a particular description of facts establishing probable cause to believe that additional communications of the same type will occur thereafter; (e) a full and complete statement of the facts concerning all previous applications known to the individual authorizing and making the application, made to any judge for authorization to intercept, or for approval of interceptions of, wire, oral, or electronic communications involving any of the same persons, facilities or places specified in the application; and (f) where the application is for the extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such results. (2) The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional testimony or documentary evidence in support of the application. (3) Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as requested or as modified, authorizing or approving interception of wire, oral or electronic communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the court in which the judge is sitting (and outside that jurisdiction but within the United States in the case of a mobile interception device authorized by a Federal court within such jurisdiction) if the judge determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that- (a) there is probable cause for belief that an individual is committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense enumerated in section 2516 of this chapter; (b) there is probable cause for brief that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such interception; (c) normal investigative procedures have been tried and have failed or reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous; (d) except as provided in subsection (11), there is probable cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where the wire, oral, or electronic communications are to be intercepted are being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission of such offense, or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by such person. (4) Each order authorizing or approving the interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall specify- (a) the identity of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted; (b) the nature and location of the communications facilities as to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted; (c) a particular description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted, and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates; (d) the identity of the agency authorized to intercept the communications, and of the person authorizing the application; and (e) the period of time during which such interception is authorized, including a statement as to whether or not the interception shall automatically terminate when the described communication has been first obtained. An order authorizing the interception of a wire, oral, or electronic communication under this chapter shall, upon request of the applicant, direct that a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or other person shall furnish the applicant forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the interception unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that such service provider, landlord, custodian, or person is according the person whose communications are to be intercepted. Any provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian or other person furnishing such facilities or technical assistance shall be compensated therefor by the applicant for reasonable express incurred in providing such facilities or assistance. (5) No order entered under this section may authorize or approve the interception of any wire, oral, or electronic communication for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the authorization nor in any event longer than thirty days. Such thirty-day period begins on the earlier of the day on which the investigative or law enforcement officer first begins to conduct an interception under the order or ten days after the order is entered. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with subsection (1) of this section and the court making the findings required by subsection (3) of this section. The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and in no event for longer than thirty days. Every order and extension thereof shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize the interception of communications not otherwise, subject to interception under this chapter, and must terminate upon attainment of the authorized objective, or in any event in thirty days. In the event the intercepted communications is in a code or foreign language, and an expert in that foreign language or code is not reasonably available during the interception period, minimization may be accomplished as soon as practicable after such interception. An interception under this chapter may be conducted in whole or in part by Government personnel, or by an individual operating under a contract with the Government, acting under the supervision of an investigative or law enforcement officer authorized to conduct the interception. (6) Whenever an order authorizing interception is entered pursuant to this chapter, the order may require reports to be made to the judge who issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of the authorized objective and the need for continued interception. Such reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require. (7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any investigative or law enforcement officer, specially designated by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, or by the principal prosecuting attorney of any State or subdivision thereof acting pursuant of that State, who reasonably determines that- (a) an emergency situation exists that involves- (i) immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to any person; (ii) conspiratorial activities threatening the national security interest; or (iii) conspiratorial activities characteristic of organized crime, that requires a wire, oral, or electronic communication to be intercepted before an order authorizing such interception can, with due diligence, be obtained, and (b) there are grounds upon which an order could be entered under this chapter to authorize such interception. may intercept such wire, oral, or electronic communication if an application for an order approving the interception is made in accordance with this section within forty-eight hours after the interception has occurred, or begins to occur. In the absence of an order, such interception shall immediately terminate when the communication sought is obtained or when the application for the order is denied, whichever is earlier. In the event such application for approval is denied, or in any other case where the interception is terminated without an order having been issued, the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter, and an inventory shall be served as provided for in subsection (d) of this section on the person named in the application. (8)(a) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted by any means authorized by this chapter shall, if possible, be recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication under this subsection shall be done in such a way as will protect the recording from editing or other alterations. Immediately upon the expiration of the period of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available to the judge issuing such order and sealed under this directions. Custody of the recordings shall be wherever the judge orders. They shall not be destroyed except upon an order of the issuing or denying judge and in any event shall be kept for ten years. Duplicate recordings may be made for use or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of subsections (2) and (2) of section 2517 of this chapter for investigations. The presence of the seal provided for by this section, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence thereof, shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication or evidence derived therefrom under subsection (3) of section 2517. (b) Applications made and orders granted under this chapter shall be sealed by the judge. Custody of the applications and orders shall be wherever the judge directs. Such applications and orders shall be disclosed only upon a showing of good cause before a judge of competent jurisdiction and shall not be destroyed except on order of the issuing or denying judge, and in any event shall be kept for ten years. (c) Any violation of the provisions of this subsection may be punished as contempt of the issuing or denying judge. (d) Within a reasonable time but not later than ninety days after the filing of an application for an order of approval under section 2518(7)(b) which is denied or the termination of the period of an order or extensions thereof, the issuing or denying judge shall cause to be served, on the persons named in the order or the application, and such other parties to intercepted communications as the judge may determine in his discretion that is in the interest of justice, and inventory which shall include notice of- (1) the fact of the entry of the order or the application; (2) the date of the entry and the period of authorized, approved or disapproved interception, or the denial of the application, and (3) the fact that during the period wire, oral, or electronic communications were or were not intercepted. The judge, upon the filing of a motion, may in his discretion make available to such person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communications, applications and orders as the judge determines to be in the interest of justice. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a judge of competent jurisdiction the serving of the inventory required by this subsection may be postponed. (9) The contents of any wire, oral, or electronic communication intercepted pursuant to this chapter or evidence derived therefrom shall not be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in a Federal or State court unless each party, not less then ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, has been furnished with a copy of the court order, and accompanying application, under which the interception was authorized or approved. This ten-day period may be waived by the judge if he finds that it was not possible to furnish the party with the above information ten days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in receiving such information. (10)(a) Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing, or proceeding in or before the any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any wire or oral communication intercepted pursuant to this chapter, or evidence derived therefrom, on the grounds that- (i) the communication was unlawfully intercepted; (ii) the order of authorization or approval under which it was intercepted is insufficient on its face; or (iii) the interception was not made in conformity with the order of authorization or approval. Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or proceeding unless there was no opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of the grounds of the motion. If the motion is granted, the contents of the intercepted wire or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this chapter. The judge, upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in his discretion make available to the aggrieved person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communication or evidence derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice. (b) In addition to any other right to appeal, the United States shall have the right to appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made under paragraph (a) of this subsection, or the denial of an application for an order of approval, if the United States attorney shall certify to the judge or other official granting such motion or denying such application the the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay. Such appeal shall be taken within thirty days after the date the order was entered and shall be diligently prosecuted. (c) The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter with respect to the interception of electronic communications are the only judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter involving such communications. (11) The requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of the section relating to the specification of the facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be intercepted do not apply if- (a) in the case of an application with respect to the interception of an oral communication- (i) the application is by a federal investigative or law enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney General; (ii) the application contains a full and complete statement as to why such specification is not practical and identifies the person committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted; and (iii) the judge finds that such specification is not practical; and (b) in the case of an application with respect to a wire or electronic communication- (i) the application is by a Federal investigative or law enforcement officer and is approved by the Attorney General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Associate Attorney General, and Assistant Attorney General, or an acting Assistant Attorney General; (ii) the application identifies the person believed to be committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted and the applicant makes a showing of a purpose, on the part of that person, to thwart interception by changing facilities; and (iii) the judge finds that such purpose has been adequately shown. (12) An interception of a communication under an order with respect to which the requirements of subsections (1)(b)(ii) and (3)(d) of this section do not apply by reason of subsection (11) shall not begin until the facilities from which, or the place where, the communication is to be intercepted is ascertained by the person implementing the interception order. A provider of wire or electronic communications service that has received an order as provided for in subsection (11)(b) may move the court to modify or quash the order on the ground that its assistance with respect to the interception cannot be performed in a timely or reasonable fashion. The court, upon notice to the government, shall decide such a motion expeditiously. { 2519. Reports concerning intercepted wire, oral, or electronic communications (1) Within thirty days after the expiration of an order (or each extension thereof) entered under section 2518, or the denial of an order approving an interception, the issuing or denying judge shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts- (a) the fact that an order or extension was applied for; (b) the kind of order or extension was applied for (including whether or not the order was an order with respect to which the requirements of sections 2518(1)(b)(ii) and 2581(3)(d) of this title did not apply by reason of section 2518(11) of title); (c) the fact that the order or extension was granted as applied for, was modified, or was denied; (d) the period of interceptions authorized by the order, and the number and duration of any extensions of the order; (e) the offense specified in the order or application, or extension or an order; (f) the identity of the applying investigative or law enforcement officer and agency making the application and the person authorizing the application; and (g) the nature of the facilities from which or the place where communications were to be intercepted. (2) In January of each year the Attorney General, an Assistant Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General, or the principal prosecuting attorney of a State, or the principal prosecuting attorney for any political subdivision of a State, shall report to the Administrative Office of the United States Courts- (a) the information required by paragraphs (a) through (g) of subsection (1) of this section with respect to each application for an order or extension made during the preceding calendar year; (b) a general description of the interceptions made under such order or extension, including (i) the approximate nature and frequency of incriminating communications intercepted, (ii) the approximate nature and frequency of other communications intercepted, (iii) the approximate number of persons whose communications were intercepted, and (iv) the approximate nature, amount, and cost of the manpower and other resources used in the interceptions; (c) the number of arrests resulting from interceptions made under such order or extension, and the offenses for which arrests were made; (d) the number of trials resulting from such interceptions; (e) the number of motions to suppress made with respect to such interceptions, and the number granted or denied; (f) the number of convictions resulting from such interceptions and the offenses for which the convictions were obtained and a general assessment of the importance of the interceptions; and (g) the information required by paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection with respect to orders or extensions obtained in a preceding calendar year. (3) In April of each year the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall transmit to the Congress a full and complete report concerning the number of applications for orders authorizing or approving the interception of wire, oral, or electronic communications pursuant to this chapter and the number of orders and extensions granted or denied pursuant to this chapter during the preceding calendar year. Such report shall include a summary and analysis of the data required to be filed with the Administrative Office by subsections (1) and (2) of this section. The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is authorized to issue binding regulations dealing with the content and form of the reports required to be filed by subsections (1) and (2) of this section. { 2520. Recovery of civil damages authorized (a) IN GENERAL,--Except as provided in section 2511(2)(a)(ii), any person whose wire, oral, or electronic communication is intercepted, disclosed, or intentionally used in violation of this chapter may in a civil action recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation such relief as may be appropriate. (b) RELIEF.--In an action under this section, appropriate relief includes- (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may be appropriate; (2) damages under subsection (c) and punitive damages in appropriate cases; and (3) a reasonable attorney's fee and other litigation costs reasonably incurred. (c) COMPUTATION OF DAMAGES.--(1) In an action under this section, if the conduct is in violation of this chapter is the private viewing of a private satellite video communication that is not scrambled or encrypted or if the communication is a radio communication that is transmitted on frequencies allocated under subpart D of part 74 of the rules of the Federal Communications Commission that is not scrambled or encrypted and the conduct is not for a tortious or illegal purpose or for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private commercial gain, then the court shall assess damages as follows: (A) If the person who engaged in that conduct has not previously been enjoined under section 2511(5) and has not been found liable in a prior civil action under this section, the court shall assess the greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or statutory damages of not less than $50 and not more than $500. (B) If, on one prior occasion, the person who engaged in that conduct has been enjoined under section 2511(5) or has been found liable in a civil action under this section, the court shall assess the greater of the sum of actual damages suffered by the plaintiff, or statutory damages of not less than $100 and not more than $1,000. (2) In any other action under this section, the court may assess as damages whichever is the greater of- (A) the sum of the actual damages suffered by the plaintiff and any profits made by the violator as a result of the violation; or (B) statutory damages of whichever is the greater of $100 a day for each day of violation or $10,000. (d) DEFENSE.--A good faith reliance on- (1) a court warrant or order, a grand jury subpoena, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization; (2) a request of an investigative or law enforcement officer under section 2518(7) of this title; or (3) a good faith determination that section 2511(3) of this title permitted the conduct complained of; is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law. (e) LIMITATION.--A civil action under this section may not be commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first has a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation. { 2521. Injunction against illegal interception Whenever it shall appear that any person is engaged or is about to engage in any act which constitutes or will constitute a felony violation of this chapter, the Attorney General may initiate a civil action in a district court of the United States to enjoin such violation. The court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination of such an action, and may, at any time before final determination, enter such a restraining order or prohibition, or take such other action, as is warranted to prevent a continuing and substantial injury to the United States or to any person or class of persons for whose protection the action is brought. A proceeding under this section is governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, except that, if an indictment has been returned against the respondent, discovery is governed by the federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. CHAPTER 121- STORED WIRE AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONAL RECORDS ACCESS Sec. 2701. Unlawful access to stored communications. 2702. Disclosure of contents. 2703. Requirements for governmental access. 2704. Backup preservation. 2705. Delayed notice. 2706. Cost reimbursement. 2707. Civil action. 2708. Exclusivity of remedies. 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional records. 2710. Definitions 2701. Unlawful access to stored communications (a) OFFENSE.- Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section whoever- (1) intentionally accesses without authorization a facility through which an electronic communication service is provided; or (2) intentionally exceeds an authorization to access that facility; and thereby obtains, alters, or prevents authorized access to a wire or electronic communication while it is in electronic storage in such system shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section. (b) PUNISHMENT.- The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) of this section is- (1) if the offense is committed for purposes of commercial advantage, malicious destruction or damage, or private commercial gain- (A) a fine of not more than $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of a first offense under this subparagraph; and (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, for any subsequent offense under this subparagraph; and (2) a fine of not more than $5,000 or imprisonment for not more than six months, or both, in any case. (c) EXCEPTIONS.- Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized- (1) by the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service; (2) by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user; or (3) in section 2703, 2704 or 2518 of this title. { 2702. Disclosure of contents (a) PROHIBITIONS.- Except as provided in subsection (b)- (1) a person or entity operating an electronic communication service to the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of a communication while in electronic storage by that service; and (2) a person or entity providing remote computing service to the public shall not knowingly divulge to any person or entity the contents of any communication which is carried or maintained on that service- (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from (or created by means of computer processing of communications received by means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such service; and (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing any services other than storage or computer processing. (b) EXCEPTIONS.- A person or entity may divulge the contents of a communication- (1) to an addressee or intended recipient of such communication or an agent of such addressee or intended recipient; (2) as otherwise authorized in section 2516, 2511(2)(a), or 2703 of this title; (3) with the lawful consent of the originator or an addressee or intended recipient of such communication, or the subscriber in the case of remote computing service; (4) to a person employed or authorized or whose facilities are used to forward such communication to its destination; (5) as may be necessarily incident to the rendition of the service or to the protection of the rights or property of the provider of that service; or (6) to a law enforcement agency, if such contents- (A) were inadvertently obtained by the service provider; and (B) appear to pertain to the commission of a crime. { 2703. Requirements for governmental access (a) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN ELECTRONIC STORAGE.- A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communication service of the contents of an electronic communication, that is in electronic storage in an electronic communications system for one hundred and eighty days or less, only pursuant to a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant. A governmental entity may require the disclosure by a provider of electronic communications services of the contents of an electronic communication that has been in storage in an electronic communications system for more than one hundred and eighty days by the means available under subsection (b) of this section. (b) CONTENTS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS IN A REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1) A governmental entity may require a provider of remote computing service to disclose the contents of any electronic communication to which this paragraph is made applicable by paragraph (2) of this subsection- (A) without required notice to the subscriber or customer, if the governmental entity obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; or (B) with prior notice from the governmental entity to the subscriber or customer if the governmental entity- (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; or (ii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of this section; except that delayed notice may be given pursuant to section 2705 of this title. (2) Paragraph (1) is applicable with respect to any electronic communication that is held or maintained on that service- (A) on behalf of, and received by means of electronic transmission from (or created by means of computer processing of communications received by means of electronic transmission from), a subscriber or customer of such remote computing service; and (B) solely for the purpose of providing storage or computer processing services to such subscriber or customer, if the provider is not authorized to access the contents of any such communications for purposes of providing any services other than storage or computer processing. (c) RECORDS CONCERNING ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SERVICE OR REMOTE COMPUTING SERVICE.- (1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service may disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to any person other than a governmental entity. (B) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service shall disclose a record or other information pertaining to a subscriber to or customer of such service (not including the contents of communications covered by subsection (a) or (b) of this section) to a governmental entity only when the governmental entity- (i) uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute, or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena; (ii) obtains a warrant issued under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure or equivalent State warrant; (iii) obtains a court order for such disclosure under subsection (d) of this section; or (iv) has the consent of the subscriber or customer to such disclosure. (2) A governmental entity receiving records or information under this subsection is not required to provide notice to a subscriber or customer. (d) REQUIREMENTS FOR COURT ORDER.- A court order for disclosure under subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall issue only if the governmental entity shows that there is reason to believe the contents of a wire or electronic communication, or the records or other information sought, are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry. In the case of a State governmental authority, such a court order shall not issue if prohibited by the law of such State. A court issuing an order pursuant to this section, on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify such order, if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in nature or compliance with such order otherwise would cause an undue burden on such provider. (e) NO CAUSE OF ACTION AGAINST A PROVIDER DISCLOSING INFORMATION UNDER THIS CHAPTER.- No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order, warrant, subpoena or certification under this chapter. { 2704. Backup preservation (a) BACKUP PRESERVATION.- (1) A governmental entity acting under section 2703(b)(2) may include in its subpoena or court order a requirement that the service provider to whom the request is directed create a backup copy of the contents of the electronic communications sought in order to preserve those communications. Without notifying the subscriber or customer of such subpoena or court order, such service provider shall create such backup copy as soon as practicable consistent with its regular business practices and shall confirm to the governmental entity that such backup copy has been made. Such backup copy shall be created within two business days after receipt by the service provider of the subpoena or court order. (2) Notice to the subscriber or customer shall be made by the governmental entity within three days after receipt of such confirmation, unless such notice is delayed pursuant to section 2705(a). (3) The service provider shall not destroy such backup copy until the later of -- (A) the delivery of the information; or (B) the resolution of any proceedings (including appeals of any proceeding) concerning the government's subpoena or court order. (4) The service provider shall release such backup copy to the requesting governmental entity no sooner than fourteen days after the governmental entity's notice to the subscriber or customer if such service provider -- (A) has not received notice from the subscriber or customer that the subscriber or customer has challenged the governmental entity's request; and (B) has not initiated proceedings to challenge the request of the governmental entity. (5) A governmental entity may seek to require the creation of a backup copy under subsection (a)(1) of this section if in its sole discretion such entity determines that there is reason to believe that notification under section 2703 of this title of the existence of the subpoena or court order may result in destruction of or tampering with evidence. This determination is not subject to challenge by the subscriber or customer or service provider. (b) CUSTOMER CHALLENGES -- (1) Within fourteen days after notice by the governmental entity to the subscriber or customer under subsection (a)(2) of this section, such subscriber or customer may file a motion to quash such subpoena or vacate such court order, with copies served upon the governmental entity and with written notice of such challenge to the service provider. A motion to vacate a court order shall be filed in the court which issued such order. A motion to quash a subpoena shall be filed in the appropriate United States district court or State court. Such motion or application shall contain an affidavit or sworn statement -- (A) stating that the applicant is a customer or subscriber to the service from which the contents of electronic communications maintained for him have been sought; and (B) stating the applicant's reasons for believing that the records sought are not relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry or that there has not been substantial inquiry or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter in some other respect. (2) Service shall be made under this section upon a governmental entity by delivering or mailing by registered or certified mail a copy of the papers to the person, office, or department specified in the notice which the customer has received pursuant to this chapter. For the purposes of this section, the term "delivery" has the meaning given that term in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. (3) If the court finds that the customer has complied with paragraphs (1) an (2) of this subsection, the court shall order the governmental entity to file a sworn response, which may be filed in camera if the governmental entity includes in its response the reasons which make in camera review appropriate. If the court is unable to determine the motion or application on the basis of the parties' initial allegations and response, the court may conduct such additional proceedings as it deems appropriate. All such proceedings shall be completed and the motion or application decided as soon as practicable after the filing of the governmental entity's response. (4) If the court finds that the applicant is not the subscriber or customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are maintained, or that there is a reason to believe that the law enforcement inquiry is legitimate and that the communications sought are relevant to that inquiry, it shall deny the motion or application and order such process enforced. If the court finds that the applicant is the subscriber or customer for whom the communications sought by the governmental entity are maintained, and that there is not a reason to believe that the communications sought are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement inquiry, or that there has not been substantial compliance with the provisions of this chapter, it shall order the process quashed. (5) A court order denying a motion or application under this section shall not be deemed a final order and no interlocutory appeal may be taken therefrom by the customer. { 2705. Delayed notice (a) DELAY OF NOTIFICATION --(1) A governmental entity acting under section 2703(b) of this title may -- (A) where a court order is sought, include in the application a request, which the court shall grant, for an order delaying the notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed ninety days, if the court determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the court order may have an adverse result described in paragraph (2) of this subsection; or (B) where an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury subpoena is obtained, delay the notification required under section 2703(b) of this title for a period not to exceed ninety days upon the execution of a written certification of a supervisory official that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the subpoena may have an adverse result described in paragraph (2) of this subsection. (2) An adverse result for the purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection is -- (A) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual; (B) flight from prosecution; (C) destruction of or tampering with evidence; (D) intimidation of potential witnesses; or (E) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial. (3) The governmental entity shall maintain a true copy of certification under paragraph (1)(B). (4) Extensions of the delay of notification provided in section 2703 of up to ninety days each may be granted by the court upon application, or by certification by a governmental entity, but only in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. (5) Upon expiration of the period of delay of notification under paragraph (1) or (4) of this subsection, the governmental entity shall serve upon, or deliver by registered or first-class mail to, the customer or subscriber a copy of the process or request together with notice that -- (A) states with reasonable specificity the nature of the law enforcement inquiry; and (B) informs such customer or subscriber -- (i) that information maintained for such customer or subscriber by the service provider named in such process or request was supplied to or requested by that governmental authority and the date on which the supplying or request took place. (ii) that notification of such customer or subscriber was delayed; (iii) what governmental entity or court made the certification or determination pursuant to which that delay was made; and (iv) which provision of this chapter allowed such delay. (6) As used in this subsection, the term "supervisory official" means the investigative agent in charge or assistant investigative agent in charge or an equivalent of an investigating agency's headquarters or regional office, or the chief prosecuting attorney or the first assistant prosecuting attorney or an equivalent of a prosecuting attorney's headquarters or regional office. (b) PRECLUSION OF NOTICE TO SUBJECT OF GOVERNMENTAL ACCESS. -- A governmental entity acting under section 2703, when it is not required to notify the subscriber or customer under section 2703(b)(1), or to the extent that it may delay such notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may apply to a court for an order commanding a provider of electronic communications service or remote computing service to whom a warrant, subpoena, or court order is directed, for such period as the court deems appropriate, not to notify any other person of the existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order. The court shall enter such an order if it determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the warrant, subpoena, or court order will results in -- (1) endangering the life or physical safety of an individual; (2) flight from prosecution; (3) destruction of or tampering with evidence; (4) intimidation of potential witnesses; or (5) otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial. { 2706. Cost reimbursement (a) PAYMENT -- Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), a governmental entity obtaining the contents of communications, records, or other information under section 2702, 2703, or 2704 of this title shall pay to the person or entity assembling or providing such information a fee for reimbursement for such costs as are reasonably necessary and which have been directly incurred in searching for, assembling, reproducing, or otherwise providing such information. Such reimbursable costs shall include any costs due to necessary disruption of normal operations of any electronic communication service or remote computing service in which such information may be stored. (b) AMOUNT -- The amount of the fee provided by subsection (a) shall be as mutually agreed by the governmental entity and the person or entity providing the information, or in the absence of agreement, shall be as determined by the court which issued the order for production of such information (or the court before which a criminal prosecution relating to such information would be brought, if no court order was issued for production of the information). (c) The requirement of subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to records or other information maintained by a communications common carrier that relate to telephone toll records and telephone listings obtained under section 2703 of this title. The court may, however, order a payment as described in subsection (a) if the court determines the information required is unusually voluminous in nature or otherwise caused an undue burden on the provider. { 2707. Civil action (a) CAUSE OF ACTION. -- Except as provided in section 2703(e), any provider of electronic communication service, subscriber, or customer aggrieved by any violation of this chapter in which the conduct constituting the violation is engaged in with a knowing or intentional state of mind may, in a civil action, recover from the person or entity which engaged in that violation such relief as may be appropriate. (b) RELIEF. -- IN a civil action under this section, appropriate relief includes -- (1) such preliminary and other equitable or declaratory relief as may be appropriate; (2) damages under subsection (c); and 1/2 of (b), all of (c) & (d) omitted see p. 514,447 (e) LIMITATION. -- A civil action under this section may not be commenced later than two years after the date upon which the claimant first discovered or had a reasonable opportunity to discover the violation. { 2708. Exclusivity of remedies The remedies and sanctions described in this chapter are the only judicial remedies and sanctions for nonconstitutional violations of this chapter. { 2709. Counterintelligence access to telephone toll and transactional records (a) DUTY TO PROVIDE. -- A wire or electronic communication service provider shall comply with a request for subscriber information and toll billing records information, or electronic communication transactional records in its custody or possession made by the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation under subsection (b) of this section. (b) REQUIRED CERTIFICATION. -- The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or an individual within the Federal Bureau of Investigation designated for this purpose by the Director) may request any such information and records if the Director (or the Director's designee) certifies in writing to the wire or electronic communication service provider to which the request is made that -- (1) the information sought is relevant to an authorized foreign counterintelligence investigation; and (2) there are specific and articulable facts giving reason to believe that the person or entity to whom the information sought pertains is a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power as defined in section 101 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801). (c) PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN DISCLOSURE. -- No wire or electronic communication service provider, or officer, employee, or agent thereof, shall disclose to any person that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has sought or obtained access to information or records under this section. (d) DISSEMINATION BY BUREAU. -- The Federal Bureau of Investigation may disseminate information and records obtained under this section only as provided in guidelines approved by the Attorney General for foreign intelligence collection and foreign counterintelligence investigations conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and, with respect to dissemination to an agency of the United States, only if such information is clearly relevant to the authorized responsibilities of such agency. (e) REQUIREMENT THAT CERTAIN CONGRESSIONAL BODIES BE INFORMED. -- On a semi-annual basis the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall fully inform the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate concerning all requests made under subsection (b) of this section. { 2710. Definitions for chapter As used in this chapter - (1) the terms defined in section 2510 of this title have, respectively, the definitions given such terms in that section; and (2) the term "remote computing service" means the provision to the public of computer storage or processing services by means of an electronic communications system. CHAPTER 205-SEARCHES AND SEIZURES Sec. 3101. Effect of rules of court--Rules * * * 3117. Mobile tracking devices. * * * { 3117. Mobile tracking devices (a). IN GENERAL.--If a court is empowered to ussue a warrant or other order for the installation of a mobile tracking device, such order may authorize the use of that device within the jurisdiction of the court, and outside that jurisdiction if the device is installed in that jurisdiction. (b). DEFINITION.--As used in this section, the term "tracking device" means an electronic or mechanical device which permits the tracking of the movement of a person or object. CHAPTER 206-PEN REGISTERS AND TRAP TRACE DEVICES Sec. 3121. General prohibition on pen register on trap and trace device use; exception. 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device. 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap or trace device. 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device. 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices. 3126. Definitions for chapter. { 3121. General prohibition on pen register and trap and trace device use; exception (a) In General.-Except as provided in this section, no person may install or use a pen register or a trap and trace device without first obtaining a court order under section 3123 of this title or under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). (b) Exception.-The prohibition of subsection (a) does not apply with respect to the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device by a provider of electronic or wire communication service- (1) relating to the operation, maintenance, and testing of a wire or electronic communication service or to the protection of the rights or property of such provider, or to the protection of users of that service from abuse of service or unlawful use of service; or (2) to record the fact that a wire or electronic communication was initiated or completed in order to protect such provider, another provider furnishing service toward the completion of the wire communication, or a user of that service, from fraudulent, unlawful or abusive use of service; or with the consent of the user of that service. (c) Penalty.-Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. { 3122. Application for an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) Application.-(1) An attorney for the Government may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction. (2) Unless prohibited by State law, a State investigative law enforcement officer may make application for an order or an extension of an order under section 3123 of this title authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device under this chapter, in writing under oath or equivalent affirmation, to a court of competent jurisdiction of such State. (b) Contents Of Application.-An application under subsection (a) of this section shall include- (1) the identity of the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer making the application and the identity of the law enforcement agency conducting the investigation; and (2) a certification by the applicant that the information likely to be obtained is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation being conducted by that agency. { 3123. Issuance of an order for a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) In General.-Upon an application made under section 3122 of this title, the court shall enter an ex parte order authorizing the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device within the jurisdiction of the court if the court finds that the attorney for the Government or the State law enforcement or investigative officer has certified to the court that the information likely to be obtained by such installation and use is relevant to an ongoing criminal investigation. (b) Contents Of Order.-An order issued under this section- (1) shall specify- (A) the identity, if known, of the person to whom is leased or in whose name is listed the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached; (B) the identity, if known, of the person who is the subject of the criminal investigation; (C) the number and, if known, physical location of the telephone line to which the pen register or trap and trace device is to be attached and, in the case of a trap and trace device, the geographic limits of the trap and trace order; and (D) a statement of the offense to which the information likely to be obtained by the pen register or trap and trace device relates; and (2) shall direct, upon the request of the applicant, the furnishing of information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under section 3124 of this title. (c) Time Period And Extensions.-(1) An order issued under this section shall authorize the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device for a period not to exceed sixty days. (2) Extensions of such an order may be granted, but only upon an application for an order under section 3122 of this title and upon the judicial finding required by subsection (a) of this section. The period of extension shall be for a period not to exceed sixty days. (d) Non-disclosure Of Existence Of Pen Register Or A Trap And Trace Device.-An order authorizing or approving the installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device shall direct that- (1) the order be sealed until otherwise ordered by the court; and (2) the person owning or leasing the line to which the pen register or a trap and trace device is attached, or who has been ordered by the court to provide assistance to the applicant, not disclose the existence of the pen register or trap and trace device or the existence of the investigation to the listed subscriber, or to any other person, unless or until otherwise ordered by the court. { 3124. Assistance in installation and use of a pen register or a trap and trace device (a) Pen Registers.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to install and use a pen register under this chapter, a provider of wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer forthwith all information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. (b) Trap And Trace Device.-Upon the request of an attorney for the Government or an officer of a law enforcement agency authorized to receive the results of a trap and trace device under this chapter, a provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person shall install such device forthwith on the appropriate line and shall furnish such investigative or law enforcement officer all additional information, facilities and technical assistance including installation and operation of the device unobtrusively and with a minimum of interference with the services that the person so ordered by the court accords the party with respect to whom the installation and use is to take place, if such installation and assistance is directed by a court order as provided in section 3123(b)(2) of this title. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the results of the trap and trace device shall be furnished to the officer of a law enforcement agency, designated in the court, at reasonable intervals during regular business hours for the duration of the order. (c) Compensation.-A provider of a wire or electronic communication service, landlord, custodian, or other person who furnishes facilities or technical assistance pursuant to this section shall be reasonably compensated for such reasonable expenses incurred in providing such facilities and assistance. (d) No Cause Of Action Against A Provider Disclosing Information Under This Chapter.-No cause of action shall lie in any court against any provider of a wire or electronic communication service, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a court order under this chapter. (e) Defense.-A good faith reliance on a court order, a legislative authorization, or a statutory authorization is a complete defense against any civil or criminal action brought under this chapter or any other law. { 3125. Reports concerning pen registers and trap and trace devices The Attorney General shall annually report to Congress on the number of pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice. { 3126. Definitions for chapter As used in this chapter- (1) the terms "wire communication", "electronic communication", and "electronic communication service" have the meanings set forth for such terms in section 2510 of this title; (2) the term "court of competent jurisdiction" means- (A) a district court of the United States (including a magistrate of such a court) or a United States Court of Appeals; or (B) a court of general criminal jurisdiction of a State authorized by the law of that State to enter orders authorizing the use of a pen register or a trap and trace device; (3) the term "pen register" means a device which records or decodes electronic or other impulses which identify the numbers dialed or otherwise transmitted on the telephone line to which such device is attached, but such term does not include any device used by a provider or customer of a wire or electronic communication service for billing, or recording as an incident to billing, for communications services provided by such provider or any device used by a provider or customer of a wire communication service for cost accounting or other like purposes in the ordinary course of its business; (4) the term "trap and trace" device means a device which captures the incoming electronic or other impulses which identify the originating number of an instrument or device from which a wire or electronic communication was transmitted; (5) the term "attorney for the Government" has the meaning given such term for the purposes of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure; and (6) the term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States. =============================================================================== A lawyer's review and perspective of the ECPA =============================================================================== WHEN IS LISTENING TO THE RADIO A CRIME? By FRANK TERRANELLA The federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act has turned many radio listeners into criminals. The problem is, most of them don't know about it. I will attempt here to describe in very non-legalistic and general terms (extremely difficult for a lawyer), exactly what listening is legal and what is illegal. Section 2511 of the Federal Criminal Statutes (18 U.S.C.) is where most of the action is in this field. The statute is primarily a wiretap and bug statute and only recently has been expanded to include radio listening. I will not be discussing the provisions dealing with oral communications or wiretaps and bugging devices here. The statute starts out by saying that it is illegal to intentionally intercept, disclose or use the contents of any wire or electronic communication. The statute then goes on to carve out exceptions to this general rule. It is important to understand what the law means by wire or electronic communication. A wire communication is any communication over a telephone or other wire. However, the definition specifically includes cellular telephones and excludes cordless telephones (even though both involve the use of radio and wire transmission). An electronic communication includes all radio transmissions, but excludes cordless telephones and pagers. After making a blanket prohibition of intercepting all electronic (i.e. radio) transmissions, the statute lists the exceptions. The first exception is that it is legal to listen to all radio transmissions which are "readily accessible to the general public." This term is defined in the statute to mean radio signals which are (1) not encrypted, scrambled, carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (2) not transmitted over a common carrier communications system (such as the phone company); (3) not special transmissions such as point-to-point private relay transmissions for the broadcast services, not meant for reception by the general public. The next exception to the general rule is that it is legal to listen to all radio broadcasts "relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress." The statute also says that it is legal to listen to a broadcast by any governmental, law enforcement, civil defense, private land mobile or public safety communications system, including police and fire, which are readily accessible to the general public. It is also legal to listen to transmissions on the amateur bands, citizens band or general mobile radio services as well as any marine or aeronautical communications system and cordless telephone transmission. Finally, it is not illegal to intercept satellite transmissions of cable programming as long as the transmission is not encrypted, there is no monetary gain by the viewer, and there is no marketing system available (meaning no one is selling the rights to view the programming via satellite). There is also an interesting section of the statute which may provide a loophole for lawyers defending clients charged with a violation of this law. The statute says that it is not illegal to intercept a radio transmission which is causing interference with any lawfully operating station (including ham radio operators), or is causing interference with any consumer electronic equipment, to the extent necessary to identify the source of the interference. I can see a lawyer arguing that his client was only listening to that cellular telephone transmission because it was interfering with his client's reception on the 23 centimeter band. After all of the exceptions are carved out, the bottom line is that the only radio frequency transmissions which are off limits are those which are not readily accessible to the general public, as that term is defined in the statute. The definition of "readily accessible to the general public" is stated in the statute as follows: (a) not scrambled or encrypted; (b) not transmitted using modulation techniques whose essential parameters have been withheld from the public with the intention of preserving the privacy of such communication; (c) not carried on a subcarrier or other signal subsidiary to a radio transmission; (d) not transmitted over a communication system provided by a common carrier, unless the communication is a tone only paging system communication; (e) not transmitted on frequencies allocated under part 25; subpart D,E, or F of part 74; or part 94 of the Rules of the Federal Communications Commission, unless, in the case of a communication transmitted on a frequency allocated under part 74 that is not exclusively allocated to broadcast auxiliary services, the communication is a two-way voice communication by radio. The first two of these are no problem. If the signal is scrambled, law-abiding DXers will leave it alone. Paragraph (c) begins the real restrictions on DXers. Under the statutory definition, signals on a subcarrier, such as the types being experimented with in television at the moment, are not readily accessible to the general public and are not permitted listening. The next section poses the greatest problem for DXers. Under the definition, any signal, other than a tone, which is transmitted by a common carrier is off limits. The FCC defines a common carrier as "any person engaged in rendering communication service for hire to the public." (47 CFR 21.2) The statutory definition given in 47 U.S.C. 153(h) is a bit more specific in that it specifically excludes radio broadcasters who, through sale of commercials, do render a communication service for hire. But, even with the removal of broadcasters, this definition is very broad and will include, beyond obvious services such as cellular telephone, just about every utility station on the face of the earth. The types of radio transmissions made off limits to DXers by paragraph (e) are certain satellite communications, certain microwave communications, and auxiliary stations to broadcasters used for such things as feeds from the mobile van back to the studio or from the studio to the transmitter. The frequencies of these services are all above 1 Gigahertz except for the bands 928-929 MHz and 944-960 Mhz. The exception to this is the frequency assignment given to remote broadcast pickup stations under subpart D of part 74. This service, which is off-limits to DXers, is assigned bits and pieces of the radio spectrum from 1606 kHz through 455.925 Mhz. Twenty-six frequencies in the shortwave bands are allocated to this service. The allocations are scattered between 25.87 Mhz and 26.47 Mhz, but unless you have a copy of the FCC Rules and Regulations, there is no easy way for a DXer to know that listening to these transmissions is a federal offense. This is precisely why I maintain that this law is unenforceable. In order for a prosecution under 18 U.S.C. 2511 to be successful, the government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the DXer intentionally intercepted a protected transmission. Since even attorneys are unsure what frequencies are off-limits, how can the government hope to prove that a DXer who happens upon one of these federally-legislated minefields in the radio spectrum, actually intended to do so? It should be noted that the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 605) has not been repealed by the new law. It is still illegal, as it has been since at least 1934, to divulge the contents of any transmission except for general broadcast stations, amateur radio and CB transmissions, and transmissions relating to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress. A recent case (Edwards v. State Farm Insurance Co., 833 F.2d 535) concluded that in order to prove an offense under this statute, the speaker must have held a subjective expectation of privacy that was justifiable under the circumstances. I hope that this brief trip through the legal maze of communications privacy has been useful. I can see the day coming when some industrious lawyer, defending a client of means, decides to challenge this unjust law. The basis is very simple. Just as there is no Fourth Amendment right of privacy where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, so too there should not be a statutory right of privacy where anyone with a receiver can listen in. To use an analogy, the providers of cellular service want the right to parade down Main Street with no clothes on and then prosecute anyone who looks. This is simply unfair and unrealistic. And beyond that, our First Amendment freedom of speech has a corollary freedom to be informed and to gather information. This freedom must extend to the spoken as well as the printed word, as long as no reasonable expectations of privacy are violated. Anyone with a receiver should be entitled to hear anything which is broadcast in the clear over the "public" airwaves for the simple reason that it is not reasonable for anyone to transmit in this manner and expect this transmission to be private. An expectation of privacy can only be achieved by scrambling the signal, not by governmental decree. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FRANK TERRANELLA is an attorney, ham radio operator and short wave listener (not necessarily in that order). =============================================================================== Modifying two scanners for cellular reception =============================================================================== The word "modifying" in this case is wrong. That implies that there is a _conversion_ process whereby you can cause your scanner to suddenly begin receiving cellular mobile telephone calls. This is wrong thinking. A scanner that is _designed_ to receive those frequencies above 512 MHz can have those frequencies RESTORED (_sometimes_). A scanner that covers from 30-512 MHz can NEVER receive 800-900 MHz frequencies without the aid of an external RF converter. Many times you will see messages from people asking how to modify such-and-such a receiver to pick up CMT. The sad truth is, the answer is $$$, as that's what it will take to get a new scanner that covers those frequencies. Some older scanners (most of them in fact) have no modifications so that they will cover these frequencies. There may be cosmetic changes, such as the addition of an S-meter, or squelch or tone improvement, but there will never, ever be anything that can be done to most of them to make them cover CMT. The PRO-2004/2005/34 receivers originally had those frequencies, but had them blocked out. Restoring those frequencies was simply a matter of _unblocking_ them. There was really no "modifying" taking place. If a scanner was never intended to cover 800 MHz, it never will. You can get RF converters that will convert 800-912 MHz down to 400-512 MHz, however, and these should work on all scanners. MOST SCANNERS CANNOT BE MODIFIED OR CHANGED TO RECEIVE THE CMT FREQUENCIES. There are a handful of exceptions to this. It started out with the Realistic PRO-2004 and the PRO-34, and went to the PRO-2005. To restore CMT for the 2004, open the radio and turn it upside down. You'll see a large metal box. Carefully remove the cover. Find diode D-513. It may be in the line of diodes, or it may be on the bottom of the PC board, in which case you'll have to VERY carefully remove the board. In either case, the cure is the same. Clip one leg of D-513 to restore CMT frequencies. If you're careful, you can unsolder this diode and place it in the empty spot at D-510. That will give you 400 channels instead of 300. For the PRO-2005, the procedure is the same, except you clip one leg of D-502 to restore cellular reception. In the 2004, put a 1N914 diode in D-514 and you'll increase your scan/search speed by 25%. Watch your diode polarity! For the PRO-2005, it's D-501, which is on the display board behind the keyboard. Adding D-504 to the PRO-2005 will DELETE 66-88 MHz coverage -- TV channels, radio control, etc., so don't add D-504!!!! As far as is known, there is no channel expansion capability on the order of the PRO-2004 for the PRO-2005. 400 channels appears to be its limit. The PRO-34 handheld can also have CMT restored, and all can be modified to receive 6,400 channels (3,200 on the PRO-34), but that's beyond the capability of this article. I could have typed in the directions for restoring CMT to the PRO-34, but you really need pictures to go with the modification. The original article was in "Popular Communications." All these are described in great detail in the "Scanner Modification Handbook" by Bill Cheek, available from CRB Research Books, Inc., PO Box 56, Commack, New York, 11725. It's $17.95 + $2.00 postage and handling, but is well worth the price due to the treasure trove of info that's in it. =============================================================================== How to discover other scanner modifications =============================================================================== HOW TO 'DISCOVER' THOSE NEAT RADIO MODIFICATIONS How do the people that discover modifications to radios go about finding them? Good question! The first rule of thumb is to obtain service manuals, as they contain more than just troubleshooting information. For example, the alignment procedure outlined in the Regency K500 and M400 service manuals describes how to circumvent the frequency limit checking firmware, which allows out of band frequency programming. The Uniden 200/205XLT service manual describes a keyboard sequence that clears most of the 200 memory channels, and loads the others with bizarre test frequencies. Service manuals often describe the circuit changes in models intended for export to other countries. This can reveal features disabled for some customers but enabled for others. A good library of IC and semiconductor data books is very helpful, although radio service manuals can also include IC internal diagrams. Old TTL databooks are no longer enough. The transition to surface mount components in radios like the Uniden/Bearcat 760XLT is motivation for acquiring data books for leadless components. Although some modifications involve discovery of "hidden" features, many others involve designing new circuitry or applying old circuitry from another radio. I can't claim credit for many "add/delete a diode" modifications, but here are the factors that accounted for a few other modifications. ***** Recognize Common Radio Circuits ***** Modification: Improve the squelch on the PRO-24, PRO-2004, 800XLT, etc. Motivation: Unsatisfied with stock performance. Almost all modern scanners use MC3357, MC3359, or Japanese pin equivalent chips, which contain the IF, squelch, limiter & discriminator circuitry. Older Bearcat and Regency scanners, like the BC300 and M400, often hid the identity of their IC with "house numbers" painted over them. I compared these ICs pin for pin with the MC3357 and other known radio ICs to unmask their true identity. Having the Motorola IC data sheet and scanner service manuals made learning the chip internals easy, so I found the way to decrease hysteresis involved changing one resistor. ***** Be Curious ***** Modification: Trick the Icom R-71A to tune below 100 kHz. Motivation: Curiosity. Tried manipulating several front panel controls at the same time to see if I could confuse the microprocessor into doing something neat. I did. ***** Study the Schematic, Look for Unused Pins ***** Modification: Double the memory in the R-7000 (also published by another radio hobbyist). Motivation: curiosity. I studied the schematic of the R-7000, and looked up the memory IC in a data book. Icom grounded an address lead, so only 1/2 the chip capacity was used. Not having enough time to try the idea on my own radio, I suggested the idea Jack Albert, who writes the RTTY column in "Monitoring Times", who used his R-7000 as a guinea pig. ***** Borrow Circuits from Other Radio Models ***** Modification: S-meter circuit for Bearcat scanners (unpublished). Motivation: wanted to use scanners for transmitter hunting. I looked for other radios that used the same IF/squelch chip and already featured S-meters (like the Kenwood TR- 2600A, IC-28A, IC228H, etc.) I grafted their S-meter circuitry to my scanners. ***** Vary Parameters and Measure the Impact ***** Modification: Speed up the R-7000 scan rate. Motivation: dissatisfied with stock performance. I studied the radio schematic, found the components that determined scan rate, and substituted various values of resistance, measuring the affect of each change. ***** Apply Simple Theory ***** Modification: COR light for the PRO-2004. Motivation: make scanner easier to use in a roomful of other active radios. Having studied the schematics of many scanners, I was familiar with FM receiver and scanner circuitry. I used service manual and found the proper point in the circuit where a logic level signal was produced depending on whether a signal was absent or present. Again, the PRO-2004 used a popular IF/squelch chip. I used the simplest transistor switching principles to design a COR light circuit. ***** Fashion a Test Harness ***** Marvin Moss used an interesting approach to explore his portable scanner. He wired the diodes in the diode matrix of his Radio Shack PRO-34 to separate DIP switches so he could experiment with switching in and out different combinations of diodes. ***** All That Glitters is Not Gold ***** I always find other peoples' modifications very interesting, although not all are meritorious. For instance, avoid changing the crystal or RC time constant circuitry used as a clock for the microprocessor controller in your receiver. The controller performs many functions, so this alteration can produce undesirable side effects which outweigh any small increase in scan rate.